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128 Cards in this Set

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Compacted DNA; found in the nucleus; contains genetic material

23 pairs from each parent
Chromosome
Carries genetic material
DNA
Female; egg carries the X Chromosome
X Chromosome
Male; Sperm carries X & Y; determines the sex
Y Chromosome
egg and sperm unit; Conception to 2 weeks
Zygote
2-8 Weeks of growing
Embryo
After 8 weeks
Fetus
Damages the developing baby
Teratogens
Stress
Drinking; exercise
Newborn Reflexes
automatic
Personalities
Mothers seem to know the personality of the baby before they are born
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist; developed stages of cognitive developement
Intelligence
A basic life process aand helps us adapt to our developement
Schemas
Organized patterns of thought (have one for everything we do)
Assimilation
Incorporate new information into existing schemas
Accomodation
Modifying existing schemas
Fluid Intelligence
Ability to think abstractly; measures logical thought
Cyrstallized Intelligence
Accumulation of knowledge (school, home) all types of factual knowledge (verbal)
Sensori-Motor
View world from senses (hear, sight) and motor skills (moving)
Object permanance
Be able to look for things that are hidden; they know its there
Pre-Operational
Sensory, motor capabilities are getting coordinated; symbols
Animism
life-like characteristics to objects or things
Child Ego Centrism
everything; life is about them
Imaginative
may have imaginary friends (not abnormal at this age)
Inability to conserve
inability to understand that just because something is a different shape it doesn't mean that they don't contain the same
Concrete Operational
Can't think outside of the box; black and white no gray area; logic may start to "peek" out; starting to think
Formal Operational
11+
Abstract thinking
hypothetical thinking; scientific
Adolescent Ego Centrisim
All about me; the world revolves around me
Personal fable
Belief that it won't happen to me; "I'm gonna do drugs, and nothing will happen to me."
Imaginary Audience
All eyes are me; belief that everyone is looking at you
Adolescence-Cognative developement
Culture plays a role in developement
Attachment
An emotional bond that leads us to want to be with them; miss them when they are not around
Harlow's monkey experiments
Baby monkey w/o mothers. Designed a wire monkey and another with fur. Food - wire, sleep - furry monkey
Separation anxiety
Fear of being away from primary caregiver
Self-concept
beliefs, values, desires, and attributes that define a person to him or herself
Critical to social developement
rooted in cognitive developement
Pre-School
Is where they are in the environment
Grade School
how they stand in relation to their peers
Adolescence
think and reason abstractly
Gender Identity
A person's belief that he or she is either male or female.
Trust v. Mistrust
Bonding 0-1
Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt
Show independence 1-2
Inititive v. Guilt
accidents happen 3-6
Industry v. Inferiority
School 6-12
Identity v. Role Confusion
Finding your identity; 12-20
Intimacy v. Isolation
Form deep ratlationships; 20-40/60
Generativity v. Self Absorption
40/60-70;
Integrity v. Dispair
70 to Death; meaning of life
Aging due to genes
can't be changed
Aging due to the environment
can be changed; nutrition, gun, smoking, sun
Grief
the emotion of distress following the death of a loved one
Bereavement
the experience of missing the person and longing for them to return
Stages of Grief

D
Denial
SoG

A
Anger
SoG

Bargaining
Bargaining
SoG

D
Depression
SoG

A
Acceptance
Obedience & Punishemnt
right and wrong
Instrumental Relativist
behave the way they are expected to
Good boy/Nice girl
Fit in
Law and Order
understand the law/rules
Legalistic
follow and obey rules
Universal
doing something not based on laws
Having objective symptoms that manifest in behaviors
Abnormal behavior
Reasons to be institutionalized
1) Hurt yourself
2) Hurt Others
*An obvious impairment
*Inability to perceieve and comprehend events accurately
*Can't take in information, proces, and understand it
Psychosis
*Mental images that seem real
*Can have - auditory, visual, tactile
Hallucinations
Most frequent hallucination
Auditory, followed by visual
Bizarre, false beliefs

I.E. "I am the president of the United States."
Delusions
*A constellation of symptoms marked by significant distress in at least one area (work, school, home,
relationships)
*More than one symptom
*Interfers with daily routine
Pyschological disorders
Genetic components
Biological factors
*A genetic tendency that hasn't been developed.
*Stress is added causing problems.
Diathesis Stress Model
Genetic component + Stress = ?
Biological or Mental Illness
*Used by mental health professionals.
*Used to classify disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR)
AXIS I

*What type of disorders?
*Disorder Categories
*Clinical Disorders
*Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders
AXIS II

*What type of disorders?
*Disorder Categories
*Personality Disorders
*Personality Disorders, Mental Retardation (IQ Below 10)
AXIS III
General Medical Conditions

I.E. Diabetes, Recent MI
AXIS IV
Psychosocial & Environmental
AXIS V
GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning)
*Easiest to do something with
*Intensive and persuasive ______ or fear
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
*Panic Disorder
*Phobias
*Increased Heartrate
*Increased Blood pressure
*Chest Pain
*Hyperventilating

*Fear of another attack
*A sense of impending doom
Panic disorder
*A specific fear and anxiety
*A fear of an identified object, class of of objects, situation
Phobia
*AKA Simple Phobia
*Fear of something (an identiied object or event)
*5-10% of population has it
Specific phobia
*Fear of social or performance situation in which embarrassment may occur
*Fear of being judged
Social Phobia
Someone who either experienced or witnessed a traumatic event like rape, war, or natural disaster
PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
Symptoms of PTSD
~Lack of sleep
~Very irritable
~Re-experience the trauma
~Heightened arousal
~Exaggerated reflexes
~Avoidance
Increased chance of PTSD
1.) They have no control.
2.) Control has been taken away.
3.) Overcontrolling
4.) Don't discuss the situation
5.) Lack of social support
6.) Fear of not being believed or even blamed
7.) Diassociated during trauma
Disruption in the normal process of conscience awareness and/or momory
Disassociate
A disorder marked by the presense of obsessions and sometimes compulsion
OCD (Obsessive-Compulsion Disorder)
*Recurrent, perscistent thoughts or impulses or mental image
*Intrusice, inappropriate, and difficult to ignore
Obsessions
*Repetitive behavior or mental act
*Feel compelled to perform the behavior or mental act in response to the obsession
Compulsions
Percistent or episodic (episodes) disturbances in affect (mood) that interfer normal function in at least one area of life
Mood Disorders
Symptoms:
*Change in weight (gain or loss)
*Loss of energy
*Decrease or loss of concentration
*Decrease or increase in sleep
*Feel guilty
*Sense of hopelessness
*Sense of helplessness
*Irratibiltiy
*Restless
*No interest in things that once brought that once brought pleasure to them.
Major Depression (MDD)
MDD Diagnosis
Present for at least 2 weeks
*Have symptoms for at least 2 years prior to diangosis
*Same symptoms as depression but at a lower level
Dysthymia
*Used be known as Manic depression
*One or more manic episodes, one or more MDD episodes
*Switch back and forth between manic and depressive episode
*A period of one week during which mood is abnormally elevated
Bi-Polar
SYMPTOMS:
*Irritable
*Anger
*Expansive Affect
*Appear high (but no drugs used)
*Don't require sleep or food
*Do things that they wouldn't normally do
*Racing thoughts

Treatment: Mood stabilizers

Often misdiagnosed as ADHD

~Men are angry, while women may dress provocative
Bi-Polar
*Below mania but above normal
*People often self-meidcate themselves
Hypomania
*More difficult to control on medication.
*Occurs 3 or 4 times a year
*Switch back & forth
Rapid Cycling
*Women attempt more often.
*Elderly - increase # of attempts.
*If someone is talking about it (they are serious)
*Worry if they quickly become calm after talking about it.
Suicide Myths
AXIS I

*Split from reality; brain
*1 in 100 are diagnosed
*Marked social and occupational disfunctions
*A psychotic disorder in which affects, behaviors, and thoughts are profoundly altered.
Schizophrenia
Exaggerated behaviors that already exist hallucinations, distortions
Positive symptoms
A poverty of what should be there
Negative symptoms
A restriction in the speech or thought say something that has nothing to do with conversation.
Algoria
A restriction in goal directed behavior
Avolition
Sub-types of schizophrenia
~Paranoid
~Disorganized
~Catatonic
~Undifferentiated
Dilusions of persicutions (someone is out to get me)
Paranoid
Speech and behavior are very "flat" combined with inappropriate affect.
*Flat expression, no changes
Disorganized
Bizarre, restless movements, rocking back and forth, shaking a body part
Catatonic
Symptoms from 2 or all three sub-types can be distinguished
Undifferentiated
Schizophrenia diagnosis
At least a month before being diagnosed with 2 or more positive, 2 or more negative symptoms
Axis I

A disruption in usual functioning of consciousness, memory, or identity
Dissoctiate disorder
Someone is unsure of who they are
Identity confusion
Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder; Now DID - dissociative identity disorder
Identity alteration
Familiar object become unreal things that seemed real at one point, but now it is not.
Derealization
*When conscious awareness is outside of the person's body.
*Way of coping
*Like during a rape
Depersonalization
*Form of amnesia that we commonly know
*Doesn't remember who they are.
*Results from trauma
Dissocative amnesia
An abrupt, unexpected departure combined with the inability to remember personal information
Dissociative fugue
AXIS II

~Anti-Social
~Narcissistic
~Histrionic
Personality Disorders
Ingrained and inflexible traits
Personality disorder
*Love to be around people

SYMPTOMS/Characteristics:
*Charming
*Feel very important
*Egocentric
*Reckless
*Very deceitful
*Show no remorse
*Very manipulative
*Most often males
*1-2% of population diagnosed
*80% of inmates could have or be diagnosed with it
Anti-Social Personality Disorder
SYMPTOMS/Characterstics:
*Very(extremely)grandiose
*Capable of great things
*Pre-occupied by money, power, and beauty
*Lack of empathy for those people that they feel that are below them
*Will take advantage of people
Will only associate themselves with people that they feel are on their level.
*Highly intelligent
Narcissistic Personailty Disorder
SYMPTOMS/Characteristics:
*Often considered as "drama queen"
*Center of attention
*Try everything for attention
*Use dramatic expressions
*Constant high anxiety and drama
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Eating Disorders
*Refusal to maintain normal weight.
*People who are 98 still think they are fat
*Dismorphic syndrome
*Someone looks in teh mirror and sees that something is wrong
*Restriction of the intake of food
*Treatment started in Europe
*10% will die from complications: hair is brittle and dry, skin is dry, b/c they aren't taking any nutrients
Anorexia nervosa
*Recurrent episodes of binging followed by purging.
*Hard on the heart.
*People will eat food, but then throw it up.
*Do not look thin
*Gag reflex will eventually not work as will.
*There can also be binging without purging.
Bulimia Nervosa