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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Theory of sexual selection
Selection for traits and behaviors that increase mating and reproductive success
Intrasexual Selection
Within-sex competition for mating opportunities
Intersexual selection
Selection in choosing a mate
Generally females are more likely to be the ____ and males the ____
Generally females are more likely to be the choosy sex and males the competitive sex
1 male with 1 female such as the Royal Albatross

Regarding mate choise, females can only choose an unmated male so they may need to settle for less desirable male if best ones are mated already
Individuals of one sex mate with miltiple individuals of another sex
1 male - multiple feamles

Males may attract the females with their resources (such as land) or may protect the females that they have already (female defence)

Females can all choose the same, most deserable male
1 female, multiple males - like the wattled jacana
Because of intrasexual competition in polygynous animals
Males who are very effective in compeition often mate with multiple females and this generates powerful selection on males for traits that intimidate or otherwise provide a reproductive edge over other males
Which type of mating system has a large difference in the body sizes between males and females
Wierd things regarding intraspeciers variations in mating systems
Some animals may participate in surreptitious matings (bluegill sunfish) or forced matings (sea lions)
Feedback sensitivity
Modification of behavior depending on consequences

Males who can pick up on female's reactions and adapt are more likely to succeed
Flamboyant adaptations for attracting mates are activated by
Gonadal sterids *Androgens like testosterone and estrogen like estradiol*
Testosterone level differences regarding monogamous and polygynous species
Monogamous males show short period of high levels and polygynous males show longer period of high levels
If we extended the period of high testosterone in monogamous males, do they become polygynous?
Yes according to Wingfield and Hegner who implanted testosterone into house sparrows and found that implanted males tended to get additional mates
However, there are monogamous mating systems because
the demand for parenting and males with high testosterone levels have actually had lower reproductive success cause without parental care the young did not survive
Mate Choice
Any proximate process initiated by the apparent chooser than yields nonrandom fertilization
Polygynous past for humans?
Anthropological evidence - over 80% of preindustrial cultures allow or have allowed polygynous marriages - usually by culturally successful men
monogamous species reach sexual maturity
at the same time, males and females
polygynous species, males reach sexual maturity
slower than females - this is how humans tend to be
Factors that tend to make variance in reproductive success higher for men than women
Men are more likely to:
- remarry after divorce
- have children with second spouse
- have extramarital intercourse
However, we are monogamous because we have to provide
boparental care because infants are so helpless and we also have very strong attachment systems
Fact that females like men with DIFFERENT immune system is called
MHC compatiblity

MHC affects body odor and we can smell differences
Couples who have similiar MHC alleles
- women's sexual respnsivity to their partners decreased
- number of extrapair sexual partners increased
- their attraction to men other than their primary partners increases, particulary during the fertile phase of their cycles
Environments with low resources, men might benefit from seeking
one mate to maximize fitness
Envirnoments with high resources, men might best benefit from purusing
multiple partners to maximize fitness
Women singled out
olfaction as the sensory system that most affects their mate choice, and results indicated that normally cycling women near the peak fertility of their sysle tended to prefer the scent of shirts worn my symmetrical men
For long term, men want
good personality, friendly, intelligence, social compatibility, and sexual fidelity
Regarding reproductive value, men look for
Age - younger: reproductive prime; physical attractiveness/health
What do women want for long term?
Social Status, age, personality - willingness to invest
What do women want regarding reproductive value of men
Physical attractiveness, masculinity, symmetrical features, health
The handicap thing
Men who display things that are hard or an inconvence to posess look more appealing to females
Fluctuating asymmetry
deviation from perfect symmetry in bilateral traits
Morton's Motivation-structural rule
Aggreesive - low-pitched, discconant sounds

Appeasement - high pitched sounds
The larger the aniaml...
the lower the pitch
PHYSICS for survival
Red deer
Roar really loudly!! females prefer deeper roars

mobile larynx
Anne Fernald
Did shit with Infant directed speech
4 elements of IDS



Gets higher pitched at the end

rise in pitch at end

higher pitched overall

"Can you get it?"
higher pitched overall, but pitched goes down at end

"that's a good boy"
Lower pitched - sudden onset, quicker
Lower pitched - more drawn out
Konrad Lorenz
Filial Imprinting
Sun - the early and strong motivation to attend to and follow the caretaker
Lorenz characterized imprinting process as:
Fast, possible during only a critical period, irreversible, and does not require conventional conditioning processes - only partially correct
When visual stimulus is paired with species typical call
then imprinting is ingrained
Imprinting to visual stimului is more
powerful if paired with species typical maternal call
Training of imprinting occurs
like first 24 hours
The movement que
is very powerful in imprinting

there is more approach stimulus when the thing is moving
Infants more likely to follow something when it is
What body parts are important for imprinting
head and neck presented
When there are external sources of guidance
imprinting is also more successful, like when siblings follow too
Bob Lickliter
Looked at if housing ducklings alone or with their siblings changed the imprinting process

alone -> don't discriminate

With other ducklings ->discriminate
Improper imprinting can
be reversed
Pavlovian conditioning
is involve with imprinting - like the mother's call
Operant conditioning
once imprinting has taken place, return of the imprinted object can reinforce distress calling and other instrumental activities by young birds - youngster is rewarded if they distress call
Once the youngster develops an...
attachment to an imprinted object it is powerfully motivated to maintain contact and is distressed if contact is broken
Three characteristics of attachment
Recognition, preference and then the aversive responce (to the removal of the attachment object)
Endorphin-addiction; having to do with attachment and natural endorphins
Genomic imprinting
is a genetic phenomenon where the allele that is expressed is determined solely on which parents contributes it
Placental tissues grows best with...
paternal chronosomes influence
Placental invasion
it's an adaptation - the placenta secretes hormones that decrease the sensitivity of the mother to insulin and thus make a larger supply of blood sugar available to the fetus

then the mother responds by increasing the level of insulin in her bloodstream...then the placenta has insulin receptors that stimulate the production of insulion-degarding enzynes
There are conflicts with blood supply regarding the placenta
and the fetus demands a larger blood supple than is optimal for the mother - which causes hypertension and high birth weight is positively correclated with maternal blood pressure
The Red Queen Principle
Organisms must keep evolving to maintain tehmselves in constantly changing envirnments

"It's takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place"
Benefits of asexual reproduction
Offspring genetically identical to parents (get 100% of your genes into the next generation)
Sex is...

have to find a mate, courtship, STIs, only 50% of your genes go into next generation
Sex is important because
it creates a generation of complex and varied immune systems, so it's hard to wipe out all the offsprings
Darwinian Medicine
Studying medical problems in an evolutional context - understanding evolutionary defenses in response to conflicts with other organisms
very agrressive, will steal other food in the air, kill other seabirds by scaring off the mothers, and then eating the chicks
Harris hawks
each bird plays a role, but it's unplanned
Orchid mantis
matches the color exactly of the plant it's on to kill butterflies
Death Adder
uses it's tail to temp it's prey, they thikn it's tail is a worm
Polyandry is seen in what species?
wattled jacana
Feedback sensitivity was shown in the
male satin bowerbirds
flamboyant adaptations are often mediated by
hormonal mechanisms
How is IDS viewed according to prime focus
it's a functioning to cultivate language in the infant from the outset
each developmental stage as complete in it's own right