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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pattern of behavior/thinking that is relatively stable across time and situations-> differentiates one person from another
First theory of personality
Galen, Hippocrates- personality types
-Four humours- blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile
Trait View
We think and behave consistently across situations
Situationist View
Our thoughts and behaviors change with the situation
Interactionist View
Both traits and situations affect our thoughts and behaviors
Eysenck's Big 3
Extraversion: Withdrawn vs. Outgoing
Neuroticism: Anxious vs. Emotional Stability
Psychoticism: Antisocial vs. Self-control
-Most traits are the result of two dimensions
The Big Five
Superfactors of personality
Extraversion: Withdrawn vs. outgoing
Neuroticism: Unstable vs. Stable
Agreeableness: Low vs. High
Conscientousness: Undependable vs. dependable
Openness to experience: Closed vs. open
Assumptions of the trait approach
Personality characteristics are relatively stable over time
Consistency of traits
Traits are stable over time and predict behavior but ARE NOT stable across situations
Heritability of Personality
MZ twins raised together were no more alike in personality than MZ twins raised apart- environment makes little difference!
Gray's Reinforcement sensitivity theory
Two hypothesizied systems in the brain
- Behavioral activation system (BAS)
-Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
Zuckerman- Sensitivity to reward and punishment
-Extraverts are very sensitive to reward systems- nucleus accumbens
-Neurotics are sensitive to punishment system
-Psychotics are not sensitive to punishment and seek high levels of arousal
Psychodynamic Theory
Concious mind- normal awareness
Preconcious mind- Easily brought to consciousness
Unconscious mind- hidden thoughts and desires
Influenced by the work of Charcot and Anna O.
The Id
-Present at birth
-Home to sexual and aggressive drive
-Governed by the pleasure principle
-Completely in unconscious level
The superego
-Develops in childhood
-Home to morality and conscience
-Governed by the ego ideal- perfection
-Lies in both pre-conscious and unconscious levels
The Ego
-Develops in childhood- before superego
-Acts as a referee between id and super-ego
-Governed by the reality principle
-Lies in conscious, preconscious, and unconcious levels
Freud: Personality Development
We must pass through pyschosexual stages successfully- each stage focuses on how we receive pleasure
-Failure to pass through a stage leads to fixation- in times of stress we regress to that stage
Freud: Stages
Oral Stage( birth to 1 1/2 years)- Breast feeding
Anal Stage (1 1/2-3 years)- Potty training
Phallic Stage (3-6 years) - interest in genitalia
-Oedipas Complex- At some point we become attracted to opposite sex parent and aggressive towards same sex parent
Latency Period (6 to puberty)
Genital stage (Puberty onward)
Freud: Defense Mechanism
Unconcious attempts to silence the id
-Projection- blame someone else
-Rationalization- Come up w/ excuse
-Reaction Formation
-Repression- remove from mind
Sublimation- Expression of desires- drives artists
-Conversion- Psycological impulse expressed through the body- i.e Anna O.
Milgirm Obediance Studies
Shock tests- studied how much people are willing to obey and authority- even if it means injuring- 65% went to the end
Dispositional Attributions
Behavior attributed to an internal disposition or inclination
Situational Attributions
Behavior attributed to circumstances or situation
Correspondent Inference Theory
-Choice- tend to attribute to dispositional characteristics
-Non-common effects- low frequency behavior or events that stand out
-undesirability-attribute to dispositional characteristics
*People make judgements based on above conditons*
Casual Attribution Theory
Attribution to Internal Causes- To a person
Low Consensus
High Consistency
Low Distinctiveness
Attribution to External Causes- To a situation
High consensus
Low Consistency
High Distinctiveness
Convictions likely... (Causal Attribution Theory)
-Low Consensus
-High Consistency
-Low Distinctiveness
Convictions likely... (Correspondent Inference Theory)
-Military Personnel had choices
-If their behavior was non-common-> distinctive
-If there behavior was undesirable
Fundamental Attribution Error
-Overestimate significance of dispositional factors, underestimate significance of situational factors
-Applicable when explaining the behavior of others- quiz game
Actor-Observer Bias
While other's behavior is attributed to dispositional factors (fund. attrib. error) our own behavior is attributed to external factors
Self-Serving Bias
When it comes to attributions of the self
-successful outcomes of one's own behavior attributed to internal causes
-Unsuccessful outcomes of one's own behavior to external causes
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
When we experience a discrepency between an attitude and a behavior , between behavior and our self image, or between two attitudes, an aversive state of tension results
Can solve problem by:
-Reducing the importance of one of the elements
-Add an element that makes both possible
-Change one element
A physiological, behavioral, and cognitive response to stimuli (real or imagined) that are perceived as threatening
Pleasant, desirable stress as in the stress associated with exercise
Unpleasant stress as in illness
Are stimuli that cause stress
-stressors can be major (loss of a parent) or minor (finding a parking spot)
Are small problems that accumulate to induce major stress
-time pressures to get things done
-financial concerns
-problems with family and coworkers
Negative emotional state associated with a blocked goal
Arise when choosing between two incompatible alternatives
Body's Reaction to Stress
The sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system is activated during stess
-increased heart rate and blood pressure
-these physiological changes use up energy and can be sustained for only a period of time
-prolonged stressor exposure leads to exhaustion and death
The Physiology of Stress
3 phases in responding to stressors:

-goal is to minimize wear and tear on the system
Challenge vs. Stressor
2 step process:
Step 1: We assess the seriousness of the perceived threat
Step 2: We asses whether we have the resources to cope with the threat
Locus of Control
A general expectation about whether the results of your actions are under your own control (internal locus) or beyond your control (external locus)
-Feelings of control can reduce or even eliminate the relationship between stressors and health
Primary Control
An effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events; a "fighting back" philosophy
Secondary Control
An effort to accept reality by changing your own attitudes, goals, or emotions: a "learn to live with it" philosophy
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
The study of the relationships among psychology, the neurons and endocrine systems and the immune system
Stress and the Brain
Sapolsky- long-term exposure to stress is associated w/ decrease in hippocampal volume, a structure associated with spatial abilities and memory
-Long-term exposure to stress is associated with increased release of cortisol-(chronic release damages hippocampus)
Emotional Inhibition
A Personality trait involving a tendency to deny feelings of anger, anxiety, or fear; in stressful situations, physiological responses such as heart rate and blood pressure rise sharply
-people who display this trait are at greater risk of becoming ill than people who can acknowledge feelings.
Type A Personality
Competitive, high achievers, tendencies toward hostility, angry and irritable, always in time-pressure situations, goal-oriented
-Behavior modification if used to encourage type A persons to slow down, follow a diet, exercise, and avoid cynical hostility
Type C
Cancer-prone, coopertive, unassertive, patient, comply w/, suppression of negative emotion, withholding
Type B
Hardiness- personality type resistant to stress
-commitment to personal goals
-personal view of being in control
-viewing change as a welcome challenge
What constitutes a psychological disorder?
A psychological problem- difficulties in cognitions, emotions, or behavior
-distress-> upsetting to them
OR impairment- difficulty in occupation, social life
-Not culturally consistent
-The problem occurs often enough or last long enough to be problematic
Who defines Abnormality?
Psychiatrist- Med school
Clinical Psychologist
Counseling Psychologist
Psychiatric Social Worker
Psychiatric Nurse
Pastroral Counselor
The Multi Axial System
Axis I: Primary clinical problem
Axis II: Personality disorders
Axis III: General medical conditions
Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors
Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning
Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder in which episodes of depression and mania (excessive euphoria occur)
-Rapid mood swings
-wild changes are shown in brain activity
Manifested in delusional thoughts, excessive and risky activity, and pressured speech- i.e. gambling, speeding
Hallmark systems:
Delusions- false beliefs that often accompany schizophrenia ad other psychotic disorders
Hallucinations- sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation
Positive Symptoms
cognitive, emotional, or behavioral excesses
i.e. hallucinations, bizarre delusions, incoherant speech, inappropriate/ disorganized behavior
Negative Symptoms
Cognitive, emotional and behavioral deficits
i.e. loss of motivation, emotional flatness, social withdrawl, slowed speech or no speech
Genetic Vulnerability to Schizophrenia
The risk of developing schizophrenia in one's lifetime increase as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases
-environmental factors (stressors) important too
Structural Brain Abnormalities
Several abnormalities exisit, especially when schizophrenia is characterized by primarily negative symptoms
-Decreased brain weight
-Decreased volume in temporal lobes or hippocampus
-Enlargement of ventricles
Neurotransmitter Abnormalities
Include serotonin, glutamate, dopamine (most common)
-Many schizophrenics have high levels of brain activity in brain areas served by dopamine as well as greater #s of particular dopamine receptors
-dopamine hypothesis states that there is too much dopamine in the limbic system (causing positive symptoms) and too little in the frontal lobes (causing negative symptoms)
Prenatal Problems or Birth Complications
Damage to the fetal brain increases chances of schizophrenia and other mental disorders
-may occur as a function of maternal malnutrition, maternal illness
-may also occur if brain injury or oxygen deprivation occurs at birth
-viral exposure
Adolescent Abnormalities in Brain Development
Normal pruning of excessive synapses in the brain occurs during adolescence
- In schizophrenics, a greater # of synapes are pruned away
- Many explain why 1st episode occurs in adolescene or early adulthood
Psychoanalysis: "The talking cure"
Stream of consciousness- first thing that comes to mind
Dream analysis
Analysis of freudian slips
Analysis of transference- transfer their feelings
Types of Treatment: Humanisitc Models
Abraham Maslow and the Healthy Personality
-Everyone has the capacity to be fully functioning
-Self-actualizing personalities- Healthy individuals who have met their basic needs are free to pursue an interest in higher ideals, such as truth, justice, and beauty
Carl Roger's Fully Functioning Person
Full-functioning person- term for self-actualizing individual who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent w/ reality
Behavioral Treatments
Learning and Unlearning adapative and maladaptive behaviors
-spider phobic
Cognitive Therapists
Learning to think differently about situations
Depression- internal,global, and stable
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment
-use both strategies
Ability to observe and comment on one's own thoughts and behaviors
Waking- altered states: hallucinations, drugs, hypnosis
Sleep- dreaming and non dreaming
The Easy Problem
What are some of the elements of conciousness that we can observe and measure
The Hard Problem
Understanding the first person experience- What is it like to be a toad?
Mysterion perspective on consciousness
Consciousness is something we will never know because we have neither the capacity or tools to understand it in full
Dualist perspective on consciousness
Consciousnness is a sum greater than the parts and thus is separate from the brain
Materialist perspective on consciousness
Consciousness is a direct result of operations from the brain and is therefore ultimatley discernable
The Power of Hypnosis
Blocks pain, cures, illnesses, stops habits
-not a good aid in memory
Hypnosis as a social agreement: Consciousness is split- there is a social agreement to share control
Hedonic Treadmill
Raising one's level of happiness- rapidly adapting to positive materialistic changes
Experiences which are completely and utterly committed and lost in the moment are the moments that bring meaning to your life
The autotelic experience
A self contained activity not done for future benefit but b/c it itself is the reward
-Transformation of time
An innate alarm response to a dangerous or life-threatening situation
A state in which an individual is inordinately, tense, and uneasy about the prospect of something terrible happening
Anxiety Disorder
People incapacitated with chronic and intense feelings of anxiety
An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object
Most common specific phobias include:
-bridges, heights
-angoraphobia: fear of open spaces
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry, dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension
-often as worried about the future as they are the present
-these individuals worry about EVERYTHING to the point that is is debilitating
-individuals with GAD even worry about worrying: a phenomenon known as meta-worry
Panic Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences: recurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear and feelings of impending doom or death
-Accompanied by physiological symptoms such as rapid heart rate and dizziness
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- an anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such as nightmares, memories, and flashbacks
-often are avoidant and overaroused
-traumas may be as wide ranging as child abuse and combat exposure to rape and natural disasters
-may immediately follow or occur later
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive persistent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions) designed to reduce anxiety
Major Depression
A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in one's usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite_
Gender, Age, and Depression
Women are about twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression
-true around the world
-After age 65, rates of depression drop sharply in both sexes
Theories of Depression
Biological explanations emphasize genetics and brain chemistry
-social explanations emphasize the stressful circumstances of people's lives
-attachment explanations emphasize problems with close relationships
-cognitive explanations emphasized particular habits of thinking and ways of interpreting events
-"vulnerability-stress" explanations draw on all four explanations described above