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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-no universally accepted definition
-an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Sigmund Freud
-a neurologist who treated patients who displayed “neurotic” disorders (blindness or paralysis with no real physical cause)
-personality controlled by unconscious: like an iceburg, most is hidden
Psychic determinism
-Personality and behavior are determined more by psychological factors than biological factors
-unconscious processes determine thoughts, feelings, behavior
psychodynamic approach
-personality has three major components; id, ego and super ego
-Unconscious portion
–two instincts reside (eros and Thanatos)
-operates on Pleasure Principle, Seeks immediate gratification of both instincts REGARDLESS OF SOCIETAL RULES
-Promote positive, constructive behavior, Known as libido
–death instincts
-Responsible for aggression and destructiveness
-Operates on Reality Principle
-Makes compromises between id’s unreasonable demands for immediate satisfaction and practical constraints
-Tells us what we should and should not do
-Can be relentless and unreasonable in its demand to be obeyed
psychosexual stages
-oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
-Failure to resolve the problems in a given stage can leave a person FIXATED (Preoccupied with area of pleasure associated with that stage)
oral stage
-Mouth is center of pleasure
-Fixation due to weaning to soon or too late
-Result: Overeating, dependence, “biting” sarcasm, being gullible
anal stage
-anal area is center of pleasure
-If toilet training begins too early or is too harsh: Stinginess or preoccupation with neatness (withholding feces)
-If toilet training begins too late or is too lax: Disorganized or impulsive
phallic stage
-Pleasure shifts to genital area
-Relationship with mother and father
-fixation: Difficulties in dealing with authority figures, Inability to maintain a stable love relationship
Oedipus complex
-Boy experiences sexual desire for mother and desire to eliminate father
-Boy fears his father (his rival) will castrate him
-To reduce this fear, repress incestuous desire and identify with father
-Male’s superego begins to develop
Electra complex
-Girls have strong attachment to mother
-when girls realize they don’t have a penis, they develop penis envy and transfer love to their father
-To avoid mother’s disapproval, girl identifies with and imitates mother
-Females develop superego
latency period
-time of peace after conflicts and issues have been resolved
genital stage
-sexual impulses reappear
-stay here from teens till death
defense mechanisms
-When conflict among impulses and wishes is suppressed, anxiety results, triggering ego defense mechanisms
-Defense mechanisms: reduce anxiety
-Unconscious tactics that protect against anxiety and guilt
-Prevent threatening material from surfacing
-Disguise material when it does surface
-Unconsciously pushing threatening memories, urges, or ideas form conscious awareness (e.g., early sexual abuse)
-Attempting to make behaviors or mistakes reasonable (e.g., child molesters belief system, in another culture this would be acceptable)
-The excuses or reasons given sound rational, but they are not the real reasons for a behavior
-Attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts or impulses to another person
-Retreating to an earlier, infantile stage of development
Reaction Formation
-Defending against unacceptable impulses by acting the opposite
-Converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions
-Deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one
-ex. Client who became angry at my supervisor instead of me
-Discounting the existence of threatening impulse
-ex. Cocaine user denies danger of cocaine
-Striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears
-ex. Need to be best lawyer because of inferiority during grade school
projective tests
-assess the unconscious
-Contain unstructured stimuli that can be perceived in many ways
-Thematic Apperception Test, Rorschach Inkblot Test, Draw a person, house, tree
Collective unconscious
-Contain memories inherited from human and non-human ancestors
Jung’s Analytic Psychology
-Libido includes an innate drive for creativity, for growth-oriented resolution of conflicts, and for productive blending of basic impulses with real-world demands
-Develop differing degrees of introversion (reflect on one’s own experiences) or extraversion (focus on social world)
Anna Freud
–emphasized ego defenses, which contributed to growth and pathology
-personality development more influenced by environment (interpersonal relationships) than internal conflict
Alfred Adler
-personality due to an innate desire to overcome infantile feelings of helplessness (striving for superiority)
Karen Horney
-Disputed “penis envy”
-Stated men envy women
-Realize can’t bear children, play a minimal role in raising children, and feel life has less meaning and substance
-Womb envy
-Cultural factors, as opposed to instincts, play major role in personality development
object relations/self psychology
-Emphasize interpersonal relationships rather than biological drives
-Pathology results from early experiences in the family, conflict between the id, ego, and superego
object relations
-Relationship between an individual’s internal and external objects
-External object: real person
-Internal object: internalized mental representation of the person, which may or may not resemble the real person
-Internal representation or image of the self
-Based on actual relationship experiences
-Determines how one later relates to others
criticisms of freud
-Development is continuous
-Infant’s neural networks too immature to experience “trauma”
-Overestimated parental influence
-Gain gender identity earlier than age 5 or 6
-Even though sexual suppression has decreased in society, psychological disorders remain
humanistic approach
-Human behavior is motivated by innate drive toward growth that prompts people to fulfill unique potential
-Self is active creator of own reality and destiny
-Emphasizes here and now
Maslow's growth theory
-Most people controlled by a deficiency need (think they need material things, see life as meaningless)
-Growth orientation (get satisfaction from what they have, what they are, and what they can do)
Rogers's self theory
-Personality is the expression of the actualizing tendency (the want for growth and fulfillment, motivates behavior)in each individual’s perceived reality
-Personality begins in childhood as children learn to need positive regard
-Rogers's self theory
criticisms of humanistic theory
-Not scientific
-Too individualistic
-Fails to acknowledge capacity for evil
the trait approach
-Personality traits are relative stable and therefore predictable over time
allport's trait theory
-central traits and secondary traits
-emphasis on uniqueness made it difficult to draw general conclusions
-found many words to describe human behavior
Central Traits
-Usually apparent to others in many situations
-Characteristics that organize and control behavior
-Usually descriptive terms
Secondary Traits
-More specific to certain situations (e.g., dislikes crowds)
-Situation specific
-Contribute far less to behavior than central traits
Eysenck’s Biological Trait Theory
-Introversion vs. Extraversion
Introversion vs. Extraversion
-Introverts: quiet, thoughtful, reserved and enjoy solitary pursuits
-Extroverts: sociable, outgoing, take risks and enjoy parties and social activities
-Emotionality: moody, restless, anxious
-Stability: calm, even-tempered, relaxed
Big-Five Model
-Personality organized around only 5 factors
-Openness to experience (artistic, wide interests, imaginative)
-Conscientiousness (efficient, dependable, ethical)
-Extraversion (active, assertive, outgoing)
-Agreeableness (appreciative, forgiving, generous)
-Neuroticism (anxious, unstable, impulsive)
Objective Personality Tests
-Contain direct, unambiguous items relating to the individual
-Measures 5 traits of personality
-Based on “normal” personality
-true/false test
-Look at patterns to assess individual’s personality and/or psychopathology
-True/False test
-Assesses pathology
-Normed on patient populations
social cognitive approach
-Focus on current rather than historical determinants of behavior
-Focuses on conscious thoughts and emotions
-Developed out of principles of animal and human learning
-Relies on operant and classical conditioning models for explanations of behavior
Reciprocal Determinism
-We choose our environments
-Our personalities affect our interpretations of events
-Our personalities create situations to which we later react
Perceived self-efficacy
-The learned expectation of success
-Our behavior is largely controlled by our perception that we can successfully perform the behavior
-Higher perceived self-efficacy=greater accomplishment
-Emotional disturbance results from continual irrational thinking, their refusal to accept reality, their insistence on having things the way they think they should be, and their self-absorption
-The way one views one’s experiences is based on the consequences of what has happened in the past, on one’s expectations about the future, and on what one has learned from interactions with others
-Talking about problems
-Exploring new ways of thinking and acting
-Teaching coping skills
-Stress management
-MD or DO degrees (medical doctors)
-Specialized training in the treatment of mental disorders
-Authorized to prescribe medications
-PhD, PsyD, or EdD
-Authorized to prescribe medications in only New Mexico
-Specialize in assessment, diagnosis, and psychotherapy
Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors
-Master’s degree or even Bachelor’s degree
-Provide treatment such as group therapy or individual therapy in a variety of settings
Classical Psychoanalysis
-Focus on the exploration of unconscious impulses and fantasies
Utilized free association
-Reporting whatever thoughts, memories, or images come to mind
Dream analysis
-Believed hidden beneath the obvious or manifest content of dreams, there is latent content that reflects the wishes, impulses, and fantasies that our kept out of consciousness
-Transfer feeling and conflicts from childhood onto therapist
Utilized Interpretations
-Suggestions of underlying wishes, feelings, and conflicts
phases of treatment
-Joining phase (find out attitudes, background, establish relationship)
-Development of Transference
(Pattern of client’s relationships is played out in therapeutic relationships)
-Working through transference
-Therapeutic relationship is resolved and therapy is terminated
humanistic therapy
-Aim is to increase self-awareness and self-acceptance
-Present and future
-Conscious rather than unconscious thoughts
-Taking responsibility
client centered therapy
-Allowed clients to decide what to talk about and when, without direction, judgment, or interpretation
-Unconditional positive regard