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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
surface structure
the order in which words were actually spoken
deep structure
fundamental, underlying phrase structure that conveys meaning
lexical ambiguity
meaning of the word is confusing. ex: he was bothered by the cold
syntactic ambituity
structure is confusing. ex: they are cooking apples.
referential ambiguity
what is being referred to?
Broca's aphasia
difficulty with production. slow, halting speech. simple grammer; no function word (be, of, the). comprehension largely intact.
Wernicke's aphasia
fluent speech,but makes little sense (word salad). made-up words, word substitutions. difficulty with substitution.
equivalent problems, different representations
carry over of knowledge or skills from one situation to another
positive transfer
helps solve current problem
negative transfer
impedes, previous method not most efficient
a distinctive and sometimes seemingly suddenunderstanding of a problem or of a strategy that aids in solving the problem
putting the problemaside for a while w/o consciously thinking about it
-have large, rich schemas containing a great deal of declarative knowledge about domain
-have well-organized highly interconnected units of knowledge in schemas
-spend proportionately more time determining how to represent a problem than in searching for and executing a problem strategy
-develop sophisticated representation of problems, based on structural similarities among problems
-work forwars from given information to implement strategies for finding unknown
-generally choose a strategy based on elaborate schema of problem strategies; use means-ends analysis only as a backup strategy for handling unusual, atypical problems
-schemas contain a great deal of procedural knowledge about problem strategies relevant to domain
-have automatized many sequences of steps within problem strategies
-show highly efficient problem solving; when time constraints are inposed, solve problems more quickly than novices
-accurately predict the difficulty of solving particular problems
-carefully monitor own problem-solving strategies and processes
-show high accuracy in reaching appropriate solutions
-when confronting highly unusual problems with atypical structural feature, take relatiely more time than novies both to represent the problem and to retrieve appropriate problem strategies
- when provided with ew information that contradicts initial problem representation, show flexibility in adapting to a more appropriate strategy
-have relatively impoerished schemas containing relatively less declarative knowledge about domain
-have poorly organized, looselyinterconnected, scattered units of knowledge
-spend proportionately more time searching for and eecuting a problem strategy than in determining how to represent a problem
-develop relatively poor and naive representation of problems, based on superficial similarities among problems
-work backwards from focusing on unknown to finding problem strategies that make use of given information
-frequently use means-ends analysis as a strategy for handling most problems; sometimes choose a strrategy based on knowledge of problem strategies
-schemas contain relatively little procedural knowledge about problem strategies relevant to domain
-show little or no automatization of any sequences of steps withinik problem strategies
show relatively inefficient problem solving;solve problems less quickly than experts
-do not accurately predict the difficulty of solving particular problems
-show poormonitoring of own problem-solving strategies and processes
-show much less accuracy than experts in reaching appropriate solutions
-when confronting highly unusual problems with atypical structuralfeatures, novices take relatively less time than experts both to represent the problem and to retrieve problem strategies
-show less ability toadapt to new information that contradicts initial problem representation and strategy
mental set
a frame of mind involving an existing model for representing a problem, a problem contet, or a procedure for problem solving; entrenchment
functional fixedness
the inability to realize that something known to have a prticular use may also be used for performing other functions
beliefs that members of a social group tend more or less uniformlyto have particular types of characteristics
the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile
step 1 in skill acquisition
cognitive: declarative knowledge, requires attention can't do second task, those who can't, teach
step 2 in skill acquisition
associative: strengthen connections that lead to desired result, feedback is important, seewhich actions leadto desired result, get rid of actions that lead to errors
step 3 in skill acquisition
automaticity: fast, eecuted with less attentino/consciousness, less verbalization;less dependent on verbalization, declarative knowledge less available, feedback is less important; lower level (proprioceptive not visual), need for consistent practice where a stimulus always gets the same response
Fitts' Law
time required to hig a target depends on two things: size of target, distance from target. speed-accuracy trade-off; aimed movements.