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30 Cards in this Set

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psychology ( meaning in greek)
psyche - souls
logos - study of
1879 - psychologys true date of birth
modern definition of psychology
the scientific study of behavior and cognitive processes of individual organisms
goals of psychology
1) to describe behaviors/ no assumptions
2) to explain behavior/why?
3) to predict behavior
4)to control/improve behavior
Wilhelm Wundt
-1879
-considered the father of psych.
-first formal lab for psych.
- first psych journal
-believed psych should be a SCIENCE - subject of this science = consciousness
counsciousness
the awareness of immidiate experience
wilhelm's new definition of psychology
the scientific study of conscious experience
Stanley Hall
-studied with wundt
-contributor to us psych
-first psych lab in us/1st psych journal of results, helped find/beocme president of the American Psych. association
First School of Thought
Structuralism-notion that psychology was meant to analyze consciousness into its basic elements/investigate how these elements are related
-wanted to eamine conscious experience, memories, images, feelings, etc.
Introspection
- method used to study structuralism
systematic self-observation of ones conscious experience
- required training to make subject more objective and aware( later asked to analyze what they experienced)
Second School of Thought
-Functionalism-psych should investigate the function/purpose of consciousness rather than its structure
- how do people adapt to their behavior to the environment
-introduced new ways to stidy this = mental testing, development of kids, behavior diffs between sexes
William James
helped find functionalism
-book = principals of psychology
-influenced by Darwin's theory of natural selection
- beleieved consciousness = continuous flow of thoughts
natural selection
heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely to be passed down to other generations and are thus "Selected" over time because they are beneficial
why structuralism failed/major contributions
- different info at diff labs was gathered fromthe same experiences
- no longer objective/scientific
**first attempt at major school of psychology
Freu's definition of the unconscious
thoughts, memories, desires that are below the surface of conscious awareness yet still have influence on our behavior
Psychoanalytic theory
attempts to explain personality, motication, mental disorders by focusing on unsciousness determinants of behavior
- hence = peoplea renot masters of their own minds
- behavior is infleucned by how people cope with sexual urges
third school of psychology
- posed by John watson- -- behaviorism/S-R Stimulus=theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observeable behavior
- rejected structuralism/functionalism
john watson
-founder of behavioralism
-believed psychs should abandon study of consciousness( b/c they were private events) and focus on observations they could observe
- rested on verifiability
- nature v. nurture - was behavior determined by genetics or experience?
* watson says behaviors governed by experiences!
Behavior
any overt response or activity by an organism
operational defintion
-behaviorism
- a precise statement
-ex. hunger is the number of hours of deprived food
pavlov
- dogs could be trained to salivate in response to food
- insight as to how stimulus-response bonds are formed
Pavlo'v new definition of psychology
an attempt to relate overt behaviors to observeable events
Fourth school of thought
-psychoanalysis
-freud
-emphasizes recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defense through techniques such as free association and transference
free association
no time to repress what one is thinking/say waht they feel
interference of dreams
sbconscious way of trying to get out
Fifth school of psychology
-gestalt- the whole is greater than the sum of the parts
-v. structuralist method at looking at each individual part
-contect makes a difference in our perception
applied psychology
every day psychology concerened with everyday /practical problems
clinical psychology
concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems/disorders
cognition
mental processes incolced in aquiring knowledge
- involved thinking of conscious experience
evolutionary psychology
behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over a course of many generations
- natural selection
positive psychology
theory/research to better understand positive/adaptive/creative/fulfilling aspects of human existence
- three areas of interest: positive emotions, positive individual traits, positive institutions/communities