Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/52

Click to flip

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences in operant conditioning
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stumuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the UCS. Also called Pavlov conditioning
behaviorism
the view that psy 1. should be an objective science 2. studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psy agree with one but not two
unconditioned reponse (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS, such as salivation when food is in mouth
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an orginally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an UCS, comes to triffer a conditioned response
UCS
unconditioned stimulus
UCR
unconditioned response
CS
conditioned stimulus
CR
conditioned response
aquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with the UCS so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a CR. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli simular to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an UCS
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthed if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
operant chamber
a chamber, also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcement stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
parital (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable rate schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response onlyy after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
latent learning
animals, like people, can learn from experience, with or without reinforcement.
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior ofr its own sake and to be effective
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language, learning, and empathy
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of anitsocial behavior
memory
the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
flash bulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system--for example by extracting meaning
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Working memory is a similar concept that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental inforamtion, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned inforamtion, such as word meanings
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in conscioiusness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yeild better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items ina list
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding