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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Evolutionary Psychology
Kin selection:help to ensure survival of genes
Reciprocity norm: if help now, they will help in future
social norm: promotes norm of helping; successful society
Social Exchange Theory
maximize rewards and minimize costs; help to reduce own stress
Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
when feel empathy for person, we help for purely altruistic reasons; help to reduce other's distress
altruistic personality
qualities that cause individual to help others in various situations.
males=chivalrous and heroic
females=nurturant and caring
cultural altruism
interdependent cultures: people more likely to help in-group members
mood effects/altruism
being in good mood inc. help b/c: 1.makes us look on bright side 2.way of prolonging good mood 3.increases self-attention

feeling bad inc.helping (negative-state relief hypothesis=ppl help in order to alleviate own sadness and distress)
urban overload hypothesis
living in cities->constantly in stimulation, keep to selves and avoid being overwelmed by it
bystander effect
the more # of bystanders, the less likely they are to help
5 steps to getting help
1.notice event
2.interpret event as emergency
3.assume responsibility
4.knowing how to help
5.deciding to help
pluralistic ignorance
bystanders assume nothing is wrong b/c nobdy else looks concerned
"i'm not concerned b/c they are not concerned"
diffusion of responsibility
bystanders' sense of responsibilty to help dec. as the # of witness inc.
"others can help"
communal vs. exchange relationships
communal: primary concern=welfare of other person, less concerned w/ awards

exchange: concern=equity, what you put in equals what you get out
how to increase helping
Increasing volunteerism (mandatory volunteerism)
Good Samaritan laws
Positive psychology
when helping=negative
over-help=can inhibit person from learning (ex.parents helping hw too much)

inequitable help=helping more than you can help back; defy reciprocity norm

assumptive help=help when do not ask for it and no evidence that you need it
Promotes aggression
Passive body language
Silencing women
Adults portrayed as girls & girls as sex objects
Devalues feminine qualities
Trivializes violence
Lack of racial representation