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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition, proposed by Fritz Heider 1958
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
role
a set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent, developed by Leon Festinger
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members; generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor our own group
scapegoat theory
theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
just-world phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
mere exposure effect
phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking of them
equity
condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
bystander effect
tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm
expectation that people will those those dependent on them
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior