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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Electron affinity
the tendency of an atom to accept an electron.
- increases as atomic number increases within a period (left-right)
- increases as atomic number increases within a group (bottom-top)
the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond
- differences in electronegativity can be used to predict the character and type of a chem bond
polar covalent bonds
a covalent bond formed between atoms of different elements that does not have equal sharing of the electron pair b/c there is a difference in electronegativity
*unequal sharing*
pure covalent bond
or nonpolar covalent
occurs for identical atoms w/ an electronegativity different of 0 so that the electrons are equally shared between the 2 atoms
electronegativity differences
1.70 = 50% ionic and 50% covalent

>1.70 = ionic bond
molecular polarity
depends on the location and nature of the covalent bonds in the molecule
- nonpolar molecules are NOT attracted by an electric field
- a polar molecular has a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other (a dipole) so it aligns w/ an electron field b/c of a greater electron density on one side
polar molecules and ionic substances = soluble in polar substances

nonpolar molecules = soluble in nonpolar substances
dipole - dipole force
the attraction of one end of the dipole to the oppositely charged end of the other dipole
- >dipole-dipole force = >molecular polarity
polar vs. nonpolar molecules
- molecule has a definite positive and negative end
- bonds are NOT symmetric

- symmetric--the electrical charge measured at any distance from its center is identical to the charge measured at the same idstance on the opp side
- partial charges are