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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Excretory System:
3.Urinary Bladder
Kidneys: Location
posterior abdominal cavity-above waistline due to liver; L kidney slightly higher than R kidney; retroperitoneal (kidneys behind, not in, peritoneal cavity; parietal peritoneum connects kidneys to posterior wall
Kidneys: External Structure
"bean" shaped; lateral border convex & medial border concave; hilus found at middle part of medial border
entry/exit of bv's, lv's, and nerves
Kidneys: Internal Structure
1.Renal Capsule
2.Renal Cortex
3.Renal Medulla
Renal Capsule:
outer layer WFCT covering kidneys
Renal Cortex:
kidney tissue @ outer surface of kidney just under capsule; find microscopic structures: renal corpucsles, proximal convoluted tubules, distal convoluted tubules, short loops of henle
Renal Medulla:
inside Renal Cortex; made up of 6 regions:
1.Renal pyramids
2.renal columns
3.renal papillae
4.minor calyx
5.major calyx
6.renal pelvis
renal pyramids:
triangular; contain long loops of henle & collecting ducts; alternate with renal columns
renal columns:
allow bv's to move from hilum to renal cortex for blood supply
renal papillae:
tips of renal medulla; contains ~20collecting ducts; region where kidney stones form
minor calyx:
funnel shaped structure; closely associated w/ renal papillae; urine moves from renal papillae to calyx & drains urine from papillae; they fuse together to form major calyx
major calyx:
drains uring into renal pelvis
renal pelvis:
large hollow area; collection site of urine; before it exits the body, passes urine into ureter
urine pathway out kidney:
collecting duct-->renal papillae-->minor calyx-->major calyx-->renal pelvis-->ureter
Kidneys: Nephron
functional unit of kidney; ~1-3 million/kidney
Nephron: Types
1.Cortical Nephron
2.Juxtamedullary Nephron
Cortical Nephron:
largely found in renal cortex; associates w/ short loops of henle; participate in various kidney functions; make up 85% of nephrons in kidneys
Juxtamedullary Nephron:
partially in renal cortex and partially in renal medulla; associates w/ long loops of henle; participate in mostly all kidney functions; make up 15% of nephrons in kidneys
Nephron: Microscopic Structure
1.Renal Corpuscle
2.Proximal Convoluted Tubule
3.Loop of Henle
4.Distal Convoluted Tubule
5.Collecting Ducts
Nephron: Renal Corpuscle
made of
1.Bowmans Capsule
Bowmans Capsule:
present in 2 layers of cells: outer layer forms "cup" and inner layer made of special cells-podocytes-covering a group of capillaries-glomerulus
tuft of blood capillaries in Bowmans Capsule surrounded by Bowmans space
Nephron: Proximal Convoluted Tubule
found in Renal Cortex; wavy; leads to loop of henle
Nephron: Loop of Henle
1.descending limb: thick limb, followed by thin limb, making a turn and leading to
2.ascending limb: thin limb followed by thick limb; connects PCT to DCT
Nephron: Distal Convoluted Tubule
connects Loop of Henle to a collecting duct; marks end of nephron
Nephron: Collecting Ducts
not part of nephron
Nephron: Associated BV's
renal artery carries blood to hilum of kidney & branches:
1.afferent arteriole
2.efferent arteriole
3.peritubular capillaries
4.vesa recta
afferent arteriole:
carries blood to bowmans capsule and forms glomerulus
efferent arteriole:
carries blood out of bowmans capsule and to peritubular capillaries @ PCT & DCT
peritubular capillaries:
carry blood to vasa recta
vasa recta:
hair pin shaped capillaries around loop of henle (both long & short)
Kidney: Fxns
1.Excretion of Urine
2.Maintenance of Water Balance
3.Maintenance of Electrolyte Balance
4.Acid-Base Regulation
5.Influence on BP
Excretion of Urine:
Glomerular Filtration --> Tubular Reabsorption --> Tubular Secretion
GLomerular Filtration:
1.blood under pressure in glom, creating filtration pressure
2.chemicals forced thru walls of glom, podocytes go into bowmans space & now called: Glomerular Filtrate
Glomerular Filtrate contains:
Water, Glucose, AA (all relatively small molecules that can pass thru), electrolytes: Na, Ca, Cl, K, HCO3, PO4, SO4, and minute amounts of serum albumin, and vitamins & hormones in small amounts
Tubular Reabsorption:
chemicals are moved from nephron into peritubular capillaries/vesa recta and are back into blood PCT Long Loop of Henle DCT
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT:
3.Na/K/Ca & Cl
6.Waste products
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: Glucose
reabsorbed into PCT by active transport; up to a certain point- if concentration of glucose > 180 mg/100mL, glucose out into urine-->glucose= threshold substance
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: AA
reabsorbed in PCT by active transport; threshhold substance
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: Na/K/Ca
reabsorbed into PCT by active transport
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: Cl
follows + ions by diffusion
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: HCO3
reabsorbed in PCT by facilitated diffusion
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: Water
(80%) reabsorbed in PCT by osmosis, following reabsorbed glucose, AA, and ions
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: Total Blood vol's
1.180L fluid pass thru kidneys each day/24hrs
2.1 1/2 L urine excreted blood vol of avg person: 5L
4.this 5L passes thru body 36X day
Tubular Reabsorption in PCT: Waste Products
1.Creatine (from skele musc activity)
2.Uric Acid (nucleic acid catabolism)
3.Urea (protein catabolism)
*all eventually excreted thru urine
Tubular Reabsorption in Long Loop of Henle:
produce countercurrent osmotic multiplier system
1.Ascending limb
2.Descending limb
Tubular Reabsorption in Long Loop of Henle: Ascending limb
cells have specific mechanisms:
1.take Na/K/Cl out of filtrate & taking to the interstitial fluid
2.ionic conc decreasing as such ions are removed
3.water does not follow ions out of tube; tube impermeable to water
Tubular Reabsorption in Long Loop of Henle: Descending limb
1.ions not transported out of tube
2.permeable to water, so it moves out of desc limb to interstitial fluid
3.ionc conc decreased @ tip of loop
Tubular Reabsorption in Long Loop of Henle: COMS
established by movement of water associated w/ asc & desc limbs tip of loop & surrounding fluid- high conc of salt solution
2.low conc of salt solution at top of loop
3.concentration gradient formed by high conc to low conc
*see reabsorption of Na/K/Cl
Tubular Reabsorption in DCT:
3.effect of aldosterone
Tubular Reabsorption in DCT: Hyperkalemia
higher than normal K conc in blood; affects adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
Tubular Reabsorption in DCT: Hyponatremia
lower than normal Na concentration in blood; affects adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
Tubular Reabsorption in DCT: effect of Aldosterone
1.stimulates DCT cells to inc reabsorption of Na (Na to DCT to blood)
2.K ions secreted from DCT cells into filtrate & eventually out thru urine
*Na in blood & K in urine maintaining electrolyte balance
Tubuluar Secretion:
blood --> DCT cells --> urine;
1.K secretion to urine (aldosterone)
2. antibiotics (penicillin)
3.drugs (morphine)
4.sweetners (saccharin)
Principle Constituents of Urine:
3.NPN substances (waste products: creatine, urea, uric acid)
4.urochrome (pigment) aka urobilin: from break down of heme of old/dying RBCs into bilirubin & further metabolized in urine as urobilin
Kidney Fxn: Maintenance of Water Balance
1.Obligatory reabsorption
2.facultative water reabsorption
3.Urea reabsorption
Maintenance of Water Balance: Obligatory Reabsorption
thru osmosis; 80% water reabsorped thru this method;
1.PCT: Na/Cl/K/HCO3/ from filtrate to blood & water follows these ions
2.LoopHenle: descending limb (permeable to water), so ions pull water out
3.DCT: reaborbed by aldosterone mechanism & Cl follows Na & water follows both
Maintenance of Water Balance: Facultative water reabsorption
19% water reabsorbed in kidneys thru this method;
1.dependent on hormone mechanism: antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
ADH gets involved by:
hypothalamus contains osmoreceptors that are senstive to osmotic pressure of blood; osmoreceptors send nerve stimuli to posterior pituitary gland and it secretes ADH in response
start w/ stimulus: dehydration
blood > concentrated than normal, OP higher than normal: stimulates osmoreceptors to secrete ADH in blood & brought by blood to collecting duct: stimulates cells here and cells open up pores in cell membrane & allow water to move into COMS from collecting duct to blood of vasa recta
start w/ stimulus: overhydration
blood diluted & osomotic presure less than normal: no stimulus to pituitary gland, so no ADH secreted & excess water goes to urine
Maintenance of Water Balance: Urea Reabsorption
40% urea in filtrate reabsorbed back into the blood; only reabsoprtion under condition that ADH present; associated w/ collecting ducts
Urea Reab. physiological fxn:
supplement COMS system (adding to concentration gradient); important in facultative water reabsorption into blood
Kidney Fxn: Electrolye Balance
1.reabsorbs Na/K/CL/HCO3 primarily in PCT
2.reabsorbs Na/Cl in ascending limb of loop of henle
3.regulation of Na/K thru DCT/aldosterone
Kidney Fxn: Acid-Base Regulation
normal blood pH 7.35-7.45
1.normal conditions: H+ ions released into filtrate & both PCT/DCT
H+ in PCT:
HCO3 reabsorption
H+ in DCT:
in glomerular filtrate --> DCT cells secrete H+ --> Na2H2PO4- acidic, glomerular filtrate reaches pH 6.0
Acid-Base Regulation: Acidosis
pH blood < 7.35; low HCO3/PCO2 ratio prod of NaH2PO4 up to a urine pH6
2.excess acid not compensated by NaH2PO4; higher than norm amts PCO2 entering DCTcells; DCT cells prod NH3 (ammonia; H+ acceptor) from Glutamine
3.DCT cells secrete NH3 & H+ into glom filtrate
4.formation of ammonium: NH3+H+ in glom filtrate->NH4 (acidic compd) in filtrate reducing acidity in fitrate & blood
5.formation of ammonium chloride: NH4+Cl- in filtrate->NH4Cl (pH4.5, lowest pH kidneys can prod)
6.NH4Cl passes thru glom filtrate to urine carrying acid w/ it
Acid-Base Regulation: Alkalosis
pH blood >7.45; high HCO3/PCO2 ratio
1.excessive amt alkaline sub present in blood
2.PCO2 in DCT cells lower than norm & dont release H+
3.less H+ secreted into glom filtrate
4.HCO3 in blood remains in glom filtrate, combines w/ NA&K ions as NaHCO3 & KHCO3, pass into urine & pH=8
Kidney Fxn: Influence on BP
1.Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
2.Blood supply to the kidneys reduced: Ischemia or Hponatremia
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus:
1.Juxtaglomerular cells
2.Macula Densa Cells
Juxtaglomerular cells:
found in walls of afferent arteriole, next to macula densa cells
Macula Densa cells:
found in DCT,next to JG cells
Ischemia/Hyponatremia: Rxns
1.JG cells release Renin into blood
2.Renin breaks down angiotensinogen (from liver) into angiotensin-I
3.angiotensin-I goes to lungs, where angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts it to angiotensin-II
Ischemia/Hyponatremia: Effects of Angiotensin-II
1.general ateriole vasoconstriction that inc arterial BP & alleviates Ischemia
2.stimulates adrenal cortex gland to secrete aldosterone
inc Na reabsorption from DCT into blood->Cl follows Na & water follows both by osmosis into blood-> this inc Na content of blood & water retntion that contributes to inc in BP; *aldosterone action: alleviates low BP & low Na content
Ischemia/Hyponatremia: Effects of Angiotensin-II (cont)
3.stim inc secretion of ADH from posterior pituitary gland, causing inc facultative water reab & inc blood vol, in turn inc arterial BP; *water to blood alleviates low BP
in summary, ang-II :
alleviates hyponatremia & ischemia sensed by kidneys
Ureters: Location
retroperitoneal; medial side of kindey; exten from hilus into pelvic cavity; enter posterior inferior region of urinary bladder
Ureters: Structure
1.outer layer: fibroelastic CT
2.middle layer: 3 sperate layers of smooth musc
3.inner layer: mucous membrane containing transitional epithelium
Ureters: Fxn
smooth musc peristaltic contractions cause urine to be moved from kidneys to urinary bladder; active movement, not draining
Urinary Bladder: Location
retroperitoneal; in pelvic cavity, behind pubic symphysis
Urinary Bladder: Outer layer
top= parietal peritoneum
sides & bottom= fibroelastic CT
Urinary Bladder: Middle layer
3 layers of smooth musc= Detrusor muscle
Urinary Bladder: Inner Layer
1.mucous membrane of transitional epithelium (allows for stretching w/o tearing)
2.trigone: triangular region; formed by 2 urethral openings going into bladder & the urethral opening @ the base
Urinary Bladder: Fxn
stabilized region to maintain normal orientation of urethral openings & one-way-urine flow into bladder
Urinary Bladder: Sphincters associated
1.inner/internal: ring of smooth mucs @ base of urinary baldder around urethra; involuntary
2.outer/external: skel musc around urethra distal to inner sphincter; males located next to inner sphincter, females located adjacent to urethral orifice
Urinary Bladder: Fxns
1.reservoir for urine
2.micturation: elimination of urine from body; controlled by nervous reflex
1.bladder fills to ~300mL
2.stretch receptors in bladder send sersory impulses to spinal cord
3.motor impulses come back to bladder & stimulate contraction of detrusor musc w/ relaxation of internal sphincter
4.external sphincter relaxes, urine flows
from bladder to outside; tube-like structure
Urethra: location
1.males: base of bladder thru prostate gland and to penis
2.females: anterior to vagina
Urethra: Fxns
1.males: conducts urine & semen to outside body
2.females: conducts only urine outside body
problems in kidneys:
1.kidney stones: calculi; 4 kinds, 85% calcium oxalate; stone precipitates in renal papillae, parts break off and go into renal pelvis, into ureter; staghorn calculus: when kideny infection; ammonium salts
Endocrine System: General Mode of Activity
1.endoc glands synthesize hormones: steroids, amines, small peptides, proteins
2.glands release hormones into blood
3.hormones transported in blood, arrive @ target tissue where bind w/ receptors (cepcific combos)
4.hormone receptors combine @ cell membrane of cells causing alteration of enzymatic activities in cells
Endocrine sys: Pituitary Gland/Hypophysis
master gland
Pituitary Gland/Hypophysis: Location
in sella turcica of sphenoid bone
Pituitary Gland/Hypophysis: Components
2.Posterior Pituitary Gland
3.Anterior Pituitary Gland
hypophyseal stalk; connects hypothalamus to posterior pituitary
Posterior Pituitary Gland:
Neurohypophysis/Pars Nervosa
Anterior Pituitary Gland:
Adenohypophysis/Pars Distalis; not functionally connected to infundibulum in physical means & hypothalamus
Posterior Pituitary Secretions:
ADH & Oxytocin
1.both produced in hypothalamus
2.both transported to post pit by infundibulum
3.both stored in post pit
4.both released from post pit by nerve impulses
facultative water absorption in kidney; diabetes insipidus: lack of secretion of ADH->produces poly uria
poly uria:
excretion of large volume of dilute urine; can be alleviated
associated w/ childbirth; stimulates uterin smooth musc contractions @ time of labor & delivery; then stimulates milk lactation from breast thru nerve sucking reflex
Anterior Pituitary Gland:
1.produces & secretes Trophic Hormones (controls for all other endocrine secretions)
Anterior Pituitary Gland: Releasing hormones
produced in hypothalamus & control secretion of Trophic hormones by ant pit gland; control a specific trophic hormone: hypothylamic-hypophyseal portal system (HHP)
series of BVs that begin in hypothalamus, passes thru infundibulum & terminates in ant pit.
realeasing hormone -> HHP -> ant pit -> secretes trophic hormones
Antior Pituitary Secretions:
1.Somatotrophic Hormone (STH) or Growth Hormone (GH)
2.Gonadotrophic Hormones
3.Adrenocorticotophic Hormone (ACTH)
4.Thyrotrophic/ Thryroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
5.Lactogenic Hormone/Prolactin (Dopamine)
6.Prolactin Inhibitory Hormone (PIH)
1.stimulates liver secretion of somatomedins/isulin-like growth factor: stimulates growth of long bones
2.stimulates AA intake into cells in general; favors protein synthesis
3.decreases glucose utilization by skeletal musc cells
4.glycogenolysis in liver; break down glycogen to flucose; glucose out liver & into blood; occurs b/w meals helping maintain norm glucose conc
5.lypolysis in adipose tiss; favors break down of triglycerides into fa & glycerole, to the liver, produces keto acids
Hypersecretion: Adolescence
Giantism; stimulates bone growth before closure of long bones; tall heights (8ft); tallest man 8'11"
Hypersecretion: Adult
Tumor in ant/post pit gland; increases growth in facial bones, cartilages of skull, and soft tiss of hands/feet
Gonadotrophic Hormones:
1.Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
2.Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
1.females: stimulates production of eggs in ovary; stimulates ovarian tube to secrete estrogen
2.males: stimulates production of sperm in testis
1.females: stimulates maturation of ovarian follicle; induces ovulation (egg out follice); stimulates production corpus luteum; stimulates corpus luteum to secrete estrogen & progesterone
2.males: aka interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH); stimulates leydig cells in testis to secrete testosterone
1.stimulates maintenance & fxning of adrenal cortex, except zonaglomerulosa
2.stimulates production & secretion of adrenocorticosteroid hormones
1.maintains theyroid gland
2.stimulates secretion of Thyroid Gland: T3 & T4
1.females: stimulate milk production in lactating breast
2.males: enhances testosterone secretion from testis
inhibits prolactin secretion in non-pregnant females
Thyroid Gland: Location
Bi-lobe structure w/ H shape found in the neck; anterior to trachea; just below the larynx
Thyroid Gland: Hormones Production
1.Thyroxine (T4, Tetraiodothyronine-4; # iodine mol.): long lasting
2.TriIodothyronine (T3): short time period operations
Thyroid Gland: Control of T3-T4 secretion
Thyroid Gland: Actions of T3-T4
1.Rate of Carbohydrate Metabolism: Glucose Metab- generates heat & normally closely regulated T3T4, so CHO metab & body temp also closely regulated
2.Protein Synthesis
Thyroid Gland: Abnormalities of Thyroxine-Related Fxns:
caused by lack of iodine in diet; thyroid cells trying to inc as much iodine as possible, so enlarge the gland
1.Idiopathic Non-toxic Goiter
Idiopathic Non-Toxic Goiter:
Myxedema; form hypothyroidism w/ unknown cause; occurs in adults; T3T4 levels low in blood -> low CHO metab levels -> low levels body temp -> lethargy -> bradycardia (slow HR)
associated w/ fetal development; thyroid gland not completely developed/developed properly; lack of T3T4 -> normal growth stunted -> dwarfism; abnormal develop can eventually lead to MR
caused by excessive T3T4 secretions
1.Exopthalmic Goiter-Graves Disease
Exopthalmic Goiter: Symptoms
slightly enlarged gland bc oversecretion; inc rate of metab -> inc body temp -> excessive sweating -> nervous/tense -> tachycardia (inc HR); expothalmos= accumulation of fluid behind eyes, inc press -> protruding eyes
Exopthalmic Goiter: Cause
production of abnormal Protein: TSI (thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin; autoimmune problem; Blymphocytes produce TSI -> TSI stimulates thyroid to abnormally oversecrete
Thyroid Gland: Calcitonin
not under the influence of ant pit gland as T3T4 are
Calcitonin reduces Ca levels in blood by:
1.stim osteoblasts -> make new bone tiss -> Ca from blood put into new bone, reducing levels in blood
2.inhibits osteoclasts
3.inhibits Ca uptake from small int
4.inhibits Ca reabsorption in PCT of nephron
Thyroid Gland: Parathyroid Glands
4; not under influence of ant pit gland; influence related to Ca in blood
Parathyroid Glands: Location
embedded in lobes of posterior surface of thyroid gland (seperate tissues for each gland)
Parathyroid Glands: Hormone Production
Parathormone or Parathyroid Hormone
Parathormone Fxn:
exactly opp of calcitonin:
1.inhibits osteoblasts
2.stimulates osteoclasts, breaking down bone & adding Ca to blood
3.stimulates Ca uptake in sm int
4.stimulates Ca reabsorption in PCT of nephron
Thyroid Gland: Adrenal Glands
2; Suprarenal Glands
Adrenal Glands: Location
superior surfaces of kidneys
Adrenal Glands: Structures
2 tissue layers:
1.Adrenal Cortex- outer tiss; under control of ant pit
2.Adrenal Medulla-inside renal cortex; under control of symp NS
* missed class
* missed class notes
Male Reproductive System: Scrotum
sac of skin located below penis, containing testis & epididymis
prior to birth, testis & epididymis in abdominal cavity -> pass thru inguinal canal -> scrotum; with some males, testes dont descend & have cryptochidism; can cause to become sterile
Male Reproductive System: Testis
1.Tunica Vaginalis
2.Tunica Albuginea
3.Seminiferous Tubules
4.Leydig Cells
5.Tubulus Rectus
6.Rete Testis
7.Efferent Ductules
Tunica Vaginalis
membrane surrounding testes & epididymis
Tunica Albuginea
outer coat of testies; WFCT; from surface, extensions (septa) inward forming compartments
Seminiferous Tubules
in compartments; closed circular tubules; 1/compartment; site in testies where sperm produced
Leydig Cells
w/in compartments, but outside seminiferous tubules; secrete testosterone
1.ICSH influence
2.Testosterone influence
from ant pit -> stimulates leydig cells to produce & secrete testosterone
creates 2ndary sex char; needed for prod of sperm; once matured needed to maintain structure & fxning of epididymis, vas deferns, seminal vesicles, & prostate gland
Tubulis Rectus:
connects simiferous tubule to a network of tubules: Rete Testis
Rete Testis:
connects to efferent ductules
Efferent ductules:
connect Rete Testis to epididymis (single tubule)
pathway of sperm out of Testis:
seminiferous tubules -> tubulis Rectus -> Rete Testis ->efferent ductules
Male Reproductive System: Epididymis
single tubule; highly convoluted; measures 18-20' in length; located in C shaped structure on post side of testis
Epididymis Fxn:
store sperm arriving in it; maturation process occurs- capacitation (if not mature in epididymis, cant fertilize an egg)
Male Reproductive System: Vas Deferens/Ductus Deferens
epididymis opens into it; muscular tube with wall of smooth musc; passes from epididymis into inguinal canal, into abdominal cavity, over top of urinary bladder, down to base of bladder on post side, fuses w/ duct of seminal vessicle creating ejaculatory duct
Male Reproductive System: Ejaculatory Duct
opens into urethra, just below prostate gland
Male Reproductive System: Seminal Vesicles
small glands; Fxn: secrete higher conc of fructose & AA; seminal fluid produced in fructose & AA serve as nutrients for sperm in fluid; 60% sperm in seminal fluid
Male Reproductive System: Prostate Gland
@ base of urinary bladder; surrounds urethra
Prostate Gland Fxn:
secretes alkaline fluid (pH7.5)
1.enhances sperm motility
2.protective agent a/g female acidic reproductive tract
Male Reproductive System: Cowper's Gland/Bulbourethral Gland
just below prostate gland
Cowper's Gland Fxn:
secretes clear, viscous fluid into urethra, lubricating (secretions occur before passage of seminal fluid thru urethra)
Male Reproductive System: Penis
male copulatory organ; many tissues
1.Erectile Tissue
2.Connective tissue
3.Outer layer of skin
4.Reproductive Fxn
Penis: Erectile Tissue
contains blood sinuses:
1.Corpora Carvernos
2.Corpus Spongiosum
Corpora Carvernos:
2 superior columns connected
Corpus Spongiosum:
encircles urethra & expands into glans @ distal end of penis
Penis: Outer layer of skin
convers CT & extends over length of penis; @ distal end forms a fold- Prepuce/Foreskin;
Penis: Reproductive Fxn
insemination in female/copulation/coitus; 3 phases:
sexual arousal/physiological or physical stimuli
sperm & seminal fluid transported from epididymis (after capacitation) to urethra by symp stimuli to sm musc of vas deferens by peristalsis; contents now in bulb of penis
parasymp. stimuli cause vasodilation of arterioles -> great deal of blood entering blood sinuses of erctile tiss -> venous drainage reduced -> sensory imupulses from glans sent to spinal cord -> reflex occurs & motor impulses come back to skel musc: Bulbocavernosus Muscle, surrounding bulb of penis -> causes strong contraction occurs in waves and ejaculate