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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Respiratory Zone
Respiratory Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs

Lots of branching

No smooth muscle

The exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) occur here; ~350mL of air
Conductive Zone
Bronchi, Bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

Have cartiladge for support

1. Provides low R path for air flow; smooth muscle and Tethering forces control air flow

2. Immune fx with cilia, mucous, and phagocytes

3. warms and moistens air to protect alveolar tissue

4. Phonation (vocal)
Tethering Forces
Applies elastic forces to keep airways open; increase on inspiration
Anatomic Dead Space
450mL inspired/breath
Only use 300mL
This excess 150mL is the dead space
Every time you breath, you must clear alveolar air from conducting airways

***Increasing depth of breathing enhances alveolar ventilatin b/c the airway dead space becomes a smaller fraction of each breath
Intrpleural fluid space of lungs
Fx: Allows lungs to follow chest wall
Obstructive Lung Disease
An impairment in the airways reducing bulk flow to the alveoli

ie. asthma and emphysema
Restrictive Lung Dz
An impairment resulting in lower compliacne; tissue or mechanical problem that restricts the free expansion of the thoracic cavity

ie. lung tissue fibrosis, asbestosis, tumors

Compliance - ease with which the tissue inflates
Fxs of Pulmonary System
1. Provide O2
2. Eliminate CO2
3. Regulate pH
4. Defense
5. Trap and dissolve blood clots
6. Phonation
Alveolar Wall
Only 2 thin cell layers seperate alveolar air from pulmonary capillary blood
Which respiration steps occur via diffusion, and which via bulk flow?
conduction - bulk flow
Respiration - diffusion
Pressure of Atmosphere vs Alveolar Pressure
Inspiration - alveolar P needs to be less and Atm P
(remember, when you increase V, you decrease P; so when you inhale and increase V/decrese P; the air follow the Pressure change and increases alveolar space

Expiration - alveolar P needs to be greater than Atm P

Alveolar pressure rises and falls, dependent on Volume, just as Boyle's law predicts
What prevents lungs from collapsing?
When you inspire, you decrease the HP in the interpleural fluid. Normally, interpleural fluid P is less than 1ATM.

A constant struggle exists b/w chest wanting to expand and lungs pulling in on chest (this tension keeps the P less than one ATM which prevents the lungs from collapsing)
Pressure in the interpleural fluid

Becomes more negative when you inspire
Pressure of alveoli
0mmHg; same as atmospheric
Resting Vol of Air in Lungs
How much air do you replace/breath?
10%, 350mL

Gas in lungs is fairly constant
Events of Inspiration
1. Diaphragm and inspiratory intercostals contract
2. Thorax expands
3. Pip becomes more -
4. Transpulmonary P increses
5. Lungs expand
6. Palv becomes -
7. Air flows into alveoli
Events of expiration
(no muscle effort required)
1. muscles stop contracting
2. chest wall moves inward
3. Pip becomes more + (although still -)
4. Lungs recoil
5. Air in alveoli becomes compressed
6. Palv becomes greater than Patm
7. Air flows out