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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Light sensing neurons become what?
Sense receptors for smell are neurons or are not neurons?
Are neurons
Sense receptors for taste are neurons or are not neurons?
Are not neursons
What kind of receptors are concentrated around hair follicles and in the papillary layer of the skin?
Touch and pressure
What kind of receptors lie near the skin surface?
Cold receptors
What kind of receptors lie deep in the skin?
Heat receptors
What kind of receptors are located in the skin, muscles, tendons and joints?
Pain receptors
What kind of receptors are known as transducers that convert energy in the environnment into action potentials in the neurons?
Sensory receptors
Pacinian corpuscles detect---
Ruffini's corpuscles detect---
Meissner's corpuscles detect ---
light touch
Merkel's disc detect ---
touch and pressure
Thermoreceptors detect---
What is the term used when sensory receptors adapt partially or completely to their stimuli over a perior of time?
The function of a muscles is to---
What are the 3 types of muscles in the body?
Voluntary, involuntary and cardiac
This muscles makes up the largest % of body mass
This muscle is inside the organs and is controlled by audonomic nerous system and you won't see striations under the microscope
This muscles has striations and is not as well defined as skeleton muscle
What are some other names for Involuntary muscles?
Smooth or visceral
What part of a nerve cell is called a fiber?
A long axon
Stimulation of a muscle cell is induced by what?
A nerve impulse
End of nerve that stimulates the muscle
Motor end plate
A motor end plate is located near the --- of a muscle which means the action potential moves in --- directions
Nerve to muscle synapse between motor nerve and muscle
Neuromuscular junction
At the neuromuscular junction the --- release a --- that diffuses across the synapse and attacheds to receptor on the -------
axon terminal
motor end plate
What induces muscle contraction?
A depolarization wave
What breaks down the neurotransmitter so that there is no sustained contraction?
An enzyme
How many microfibils can each muscle cell contain?
What is the name for the series of interlocking protein strands found in each myofibril?
Actin and myosin
Muscle cell membrane (outer membrane) that takes action potential to the T-Tubules.
Tubular extensions from sarcolemma that carries depolarization to the cell's interior cytoplasm
T Tubles
Term for muscle cell cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum like bag that contains calciium ions
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Skeletal cells that have cardiac muscle and smooth cells have 1 multiple nucleii
Individual, functional until of a muscle- the area that is getting smaller (compared to a collapsible room) - also known as the functional unit of a muscle
Acts like the 2 moveable walls of the sarcomere
Z disc
Muscle filaments attached to the Z disc - proteins
Not attached to and moves the actin
Extension off myosin that attached to actin and moves it
Cross bridges
---- latch on to the actin at specific binding sigths
Cross bridges
2 proteins that help regulated the cross bridge / actin connection
Tropomyosin and troponin
In the relaxed muscles, this covers the binding site (like the pot holder)
A prtein that holds tropomyosin in place (like the hand holding it)
When an action potential is generated in the muscle fiber, --- are released from the ----- and interact with the troponin
Ca ions
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Relaxation of a muscle fiber takes place when the --- are returned to the SR during ----
Ca ions
A single depolarization/repolarization cyccle is called a ---
At room temp, the body stiffens, contracting of muscles after death - lasts for 24 hours
Rigor mortis
The sustained contraction of muscle after death starts when the ---- starts to break down and --- are released.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Ca ions
What 5 things are seen under a microscope when a striated muscle is looked at?
Z line
A band
H band
M line
I band
Represents where the walls of sarcomere can see the Z discs under a microscope
Z line
Beginning and end of the total myocin stretch - where you can see all of the I band
A band
The inner part of a band w/no action , where you just see myocin
H band
The dead center portion of sarcomere - the connection that holds myocin together
M line
Area around Z disc where actin is the only item present
I band
1 nerve fiber and all the muscle cells that it stimulates ( a few to 100)
Motor unit
A muscle cell will contract competely or not at all
All or nothing rule
All muscles at all times will have some degree of stimulation and in a slight state of contraction - normal state of a muscle
Muscle tone
A phosphate plus a high energy bond plus a molecule of creatine
Sustained energy comes from the breakdown of ---
What two things burn it's glucose in the presence of oxygen?
Aeorobic metabolism and pyruvic acid
Anaerobic metabolism and lactic acid cause you to ---
breath hard
What type of muscle has a modified striated appearance?
Cardiac muscle
Each cardiac muscle fiber has only --- nucleus while striated muscle has ---
one nucleus
a number of nuclei
--- cells are interconnected so that only 1 muscle cell needs to be depolarized in order for all the --- muscles to be depolarized
--- is in contact with other muscles, synapse or connecting between cardiac cells that allow depolarization to travel from cell to cell
Intercalated discs
There are more mitochondria and muscles cells and blood supply in a cardiac or a skeletal muscle?
Cardiac or skeletal muscle? contractions last longer - anaerobic only
Cardiac or skeletal muscle? Can't work under anaerobic conditions
Spindle shaped, tapered ends and have only 1 nucleus
Smooth muscles
Does not have the more complicated striations of skeletal and cardiac muscles because they are not organized into sarcomeres
Smooth muscles
Counterparts of the Z line in skeletal and cardiac muscle - have to pull on the dense bodies
Intermediate filaments
Smooth muscle comes in two forms
Visceral and multiunit
Forms a continuous interconnected network of muscle fibers that function as a single unit
Type of arrangement that is found in blood vessels, GI tract, uterus
Visceral muscles
Individual muscle fibers - each separate muscle fiber is controlled by separate motor neurons
Multiunit smooth muscle
These types of muscles contract and relax more slowly, require less energy and receive nerve impulse from the ANS and not under voluntary control
Smooth muscles
Composed of specialized connective tissue that contains a collagenous mix of calcium and small amounts of other minerals
Bone calcium and strength stays stronger regardless of age if you do what?
Stay active
Cell that makes bone
Cell that resorbs bone
Cells that maintain bone
Starts out as membrane to cartillage and than to bone - makes up most of the bones in the body
Enchondral bone formation
1st place in bone that is still cartillage that turns to bone
Center of ossification
Is growing in length - growth cartillage between shaft and epidysis
Epiphysial plate
When everything has turned to bone
Line in long bone
Found in most long bones
Enchondral bone formation
Found in skull and clavicles - goes from membrane to bone - allows bone to bend during birth
Intramembranous bone formation
Areas where bone is still membrane
Soft spot in the head
Two sensory systems involved in proprioception
Golgi tendon and muscle spindles
Tells how much pull or stress a muscle is putting on a tendon
Golgi tendon organs located in juction of a tendon with a muscle
Inside muscle tells brain how far muscle has been stretched out and how quickly
Muscle spindles in the belly of skeletal muscle
Tube system to the lungs
Respiratory passages
Upper part of the airways
Nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx
Lower part of the airways
trachea, bronci and bronchials
Movement through respiratory passages to and from the lung into the lungs
Actual movement of oxygen in to blood - carbon dioxide out to the chest cavity
Gas exchange
Where does gas exchange take place?
In the alveoli
Substance that reduces surface tension on water molecules in alveoli - allowing them to expand fully
Intrapulmonary pressure is
pressure inside the lungs
Intrapleural pressure is
Pressure inside the pleural sac
The pleural space around the lungs has a pressure slightly less than
atmospheric pressure
We breathe in by ...
contracting our diaphram
Exhaling is what kind of an action
totally passive
What organs are elastic in nature?
lungs and thorax
Medical term for distensibility of the lungs