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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
differentiate among the mechanisms of action and the adverse effects of the major classes of diuretic agents
Thiazides- inhibits Na reabsorption, increases K+excretion - low K+, Low Na, mild hypotension
Loop Diuretics- inhibits Na reabsorption, increases K+ excretion - hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypotension
Aldosterone Antagonist- increases excretion of Na without excreting K+- an ER drug
Osmotic Diuretics- increase osmolatily of ploasma and renal tubular fluids - indicated in ICP and oliguria
admin by IV only
List spicific nursing implications related to each class of diuretic agents
take I&O
monitor labs - K+ Na
monitor pts wgt 1kg=1L
assess for S&S of hypo/hyperkalemia and hyponatremia
assess BP
Discuss the mech. of action and major adverse effects of the major classes of peripheral vascular agents
Calcium Channel Bloickers- decreases BP primarily by dilating peripheral vessels
Alpha1 blocking agents- decreases peripheral resistance, causing dilation of blood vessels
Alpha 2 blocking agent- dilates, p.Bl.v., decreases HR and BP -stimulates alpha 2 receptors in the brain
can cause orthostatic hypotension
name most common meds in peripherial vascular agents
CCB- Procardia/nifedipine
Alpha 1- prazosin/MinipressA=
Alpha 2- clonidine/Catapres
id appropriate nursing interventions for pts receiving peripheral vasodilators
check BP & HR
check for orthostatic hypotension
reflex tachycardia
Discuss the function of iron, Vitamin B12 and folic acid in normal red blood cell production
iron is the fuel for production, vitamin B12 is needed for gastric cells to secrete instrinsic factor
folic acid- stops neural tube defects in infants
Differentiate btw iron-deficiency and megaplastic anemias, including pathophysiology, major causes and treatment
iron-defincincy will cause fatique, less blood volume, a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells, which carry oxygen to tissues. Oxygenated blood gives your body energy and your skin a healthy color.common in women, lack of iron in diet blood loss ex: menistration, inability to absorb iron,pregnancy, - give iron supplements

but megaplastic anemias-pernicious anemia - see other flashcard - treatment Admin V B12 injections
Id nursing assessments and interventions related to the adm. of agents used in the treatment of anemias
for oral iron supplements
watch that pt does not have peptic ulcers or inflammatory int. disorders
give by straw
dark stools and constipation
admin via z-tract
describe the mech. of action and therapeutic uses of ea of the classes of anticoagulant agents
Heparin- preventsw thrombosis, can be given IV or SQ- inactivates thrombin, used short term - 20-30 min onset, give in abdomen,
Lovenox/enoxaparin- prevents thrombosis formation in knee and hip surgery- lower risk of bleeding-no labs given only SQ
Coumadin/warfarin- prevent thrombosis formation-atrial fib, prosthetic heart valves-give orally - onset 2-7days, anti K+ antagonist,
Nursing assessments and interventions with admin of anticoagulants
Heparin- monitor PTT-
Lovenox/enoxaparin - no need of labs
Coumadin/warfarin- monitor lab PT-and/or INR antidote is vK+ or fresh frozen plasma
client ed. for anticoagulants
electric razor
soft toothbrush
no IM injections
Notify MD b4 giving ASA or NSAIDS
limit physical act. limit dietary intake of green leafy vegs
most commonly used anticoagulant agents
discuss the use of protamine sulfate and Vitamin K as anticoagulant antagonists
Vitamin K produces clotting factors and is an antidote to Coumadin and Protamine Sulfate is an antidote to Heparin if platelet count too low
Id the mech. of actions, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and interactions of thrombolytic agents
IV meds used to dissolve or breakdown thrombi in an actue situation occasionally used to dissolve clots in IV catheters, causes bleeding because fibrinolysis is non-seletive, contraindications are severe HTN, recent trauma or CVA, peptic ulcer disease
Thrombolytic agents
streptokinase/Streptase -do not give to recent trauma pts, and watch for bleeding, check BP
list the mech. of action for ea. of the 3 major classes of antilipemic drugs
used to treat elevated serum lipid levels
HMG-COA-reductase inhibitors/Cholesterol Synthesis Inhibitors- blocks enzyme req. for hepatic synthesis of CHOL.
Bile Sequestering Agents - binds with bile acids in the intestines and is exc. with feces. reduces LDL -used with statins
Fibrates- decreases prod. of triglycerides-Niacin, decreases Chol and Trig.
id the major drug interactions, adverse reactions and nursing imp for ea of the 3 major classes of antilipemic drugs
HMG_COA - NCD(nau.cramps,dia)
depatotoxicity and muscle destruction - monitor liver function studies-AST or ALT
Bile Seq. Agents- bloating,flatulence, constipation, decreases the abs. of many oral meds
Fibrates- GI discomfort, diarrhea, gallstones
Niacin- skin flushing, pruritus and gastric irritation-usually combined with another antilipemic