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234 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is personality?
-complex abstraction that includes the person's unique learning history and genetic background in ways in which these organized and integrated complexes or events influence his/her responses to certain stimuli in the environment
What is a theory?
-summary statement
-general principle or set of principles about a class of events
What are Scientific theories?
-conceptual systems constructed by researchers to help make sense of existsing info
-to aid in the production of unobserved relationships b/t events
What are theories used for?
-to explain phenomena
-to predict information
What is a hypothesis?
-tentative theoretical statement how events are related to one another
-often stated as predictions how events will affect the operation of others
What is an operational definition?
-procedure used to define a particular concept
-socially constructed
-concepts are interpreted based on individual or collective experiances
What is a scientific observation?
-refers to observing and recording in a systematic and objective manner what people do
What is an experiment?
-research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause and effect relationship b/t 2 variables by manipulating one variable (independent) then observing and rtecording the resulting changes in the other variable (dependent)
What is the independent varable?
-in an experiment, the variable that is introduces or changes to see what effect it has on the dependent variable
What is the dependent variable?
-in an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of the introduction of or changes made in the independent variable
What is a survey?
-research method in which information is collected froma large number of people by personal interview, written questionaires, or some other means.
What is the problem with doing surveys?
-questions can be misinterpreted by the individuals responding to the questions
What ias a cross-sequential research?
-research method in which researchers first study several groupd of people of different ages and then follow those groupd over the years (a longitudinal approach)
What is a case study?
-intensive study of 1 ind.
-based on interviews, current thinking of ind., and actions of ind.
-may also untilize interviews of people who know the ind.
What is the use of case-studies?
-to understand a particular ind. very well
-to provide a provocative starting point for other research.
What is ethnograpy?
-strong emphasis on exploring the nature of particular phenomena
-tendency to work primarily with "unstructured" data
-investigation of a small # of cases or 1 case in detail
-analysis of data that involves explicit interpretation of the meanings and func. of human actions
What is "unstructured" data?
-data that have not been coded at th epoint og data collection in terms of a closed set of analytic categories
What is the product of ethnography?
-takes the form of verbal descriptions and explainations, with quantification and statistical analysis playing a subordinate role at most
What is considered during ethnography?
-whether the researcher is known to be a researcher by all being studied, by some, or none
-how much and what is known about the research by whom
-sorts of activities that are or not engaged by the researcher
-the orientation of the researcher (insider or outsider)
What is a structured interview?
-refers toa situation in which an interviewer asks each respindent a series of preestablished questions with a linmted set of response categories
What is the significance of a stuctured interview?
-there is very little flexibility in the way questions are asked or answered
What is parsimony?
-criterion for judging the scientific worth of a theory
What should a theory be based off of parsimony?
-should be as economical/simple as possible and still adequatly account for the phenomena in its domain
What is henistis value?
-criterion or standard for judging the scientific worth of a theory
What should a theory be based off of henistic value?
-should stimulate new ideas and new research
What is the response-response law?
describes a highly reliable, but non-casual linkage b/t variables
What is the stimulus-response law?
-describes casual connections b/t variables
-manipulation of one variable produces changes in another variable
What is testability?
-criterion for judging the scientific worth of a theory
what is an adequate theory based off of testability?
-must contain a hypothesis that can be defined, measured, and checked in terms of observable events
What is reliability?
-consistency across repeated measurements
What is validity?
-a measure's truthfulness or the degree to which it actually measures what it is intended to measure
What is a self-report?
-an assessment in whcih people make ratings pertaining to themselves
What is social desirabliity?
-reflects the fact that people tned to portray themselves in a good light (in socially desirable ways) whenever possible
What are assumptions of dispositional perspective?
-people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts, and feelings
-people are different from each other in many ways
What are types?
-regarded as categories that are distinct and discontinuous
What are traits?
-assumed to be stable aspects of personality that influence behavior ina wide range of settings
What did Carl Jung do an extensive study on and what did he find?
-of scizophrenic patients that led him to postulate the existance of a collective unconsciousness
-found that fantasies and delusions of the patients in many respect similar to myths and fantasies that guided people in contemporary and ancient cultures
What did Carl Jung publish in 1906?
-published The psychology of Dementia Praecox, psychoanalytic treatment of schizophrenia
Who did Carl Jung disagree with and why? What was he interested in?
-could not accept Fraed's belief of id, or sex instinct, was the only determinant of behavior
-disagreed w/ Freud's interest in pathological side of human behavior
-interested in human inspirations and spiritual needs
What is psyche?
-total personality
-energy flows continuously in various directions from conscious to uncosciousness and back from inner to outer reality and back
What is Libido (sex drive/energy) and psychic energy?
-interchangable and is an abstraction representing something real that cannot be touched or felt but that we know exists through its effects
What is personal unconsciousness?
-consists of all the forgotten experiances that ahve lost intensity for some reason
-pissbly because of their unpleasantness
What is the collective unconscious?
-storehouse of latent memories of our human and prehuman ancestry
-consists of instincts and archetypes that we inherit as possibilities and often affect our behavior
What are archetypes?
-universal themes that affect our behavior
-thought forms or ideas that give rise to visions projected onto current experiances
What is the mother-child archetype?
-characterized by a mother's protection of her child
What are rational functions?
-making judgements about experiances
-sensation and intuition= irrational
-they involce passivley recording experiances w/o evaluating or interpreting it.
What is the characteristics of introversion?
-tends to be alone alot, may seem shy, and prefers solitary activities
-tend to withdraw into themselves when facing stress
What are the characterists of extraversion?
-a person who isn't shy and enjoys spending time with others.
-refers to an outgoing, candid and accomadating nature that adapts easily to a given situation
What is the nomothetic view of personality?
-emphasizes comparisons among people who have the same traits that are meaningful to everyone
What is the idiographic view of personality?
-person is unique that there are times when people can't be compared because everyone is on a different scale.
What did Wiggins develop?
-developed the interpersonal circle
-which is situated around 2 dimensions: dominance and love
What is in the 5 factor model?
What is factor analysis?
-allows the researcher to determine which factors/variables go/don't go together
Who was Hans Eysench?
-Major contributor to trait psychology and he relied on obervations made by others over many centuries
What did Hans Eyesench pose?
-posed that the underlying dimensions of personality are supertraits and include introversion-extraversion, stability-neuoticism, and impukse control psycholicism
What is the extraversion dimension?
-sociability, liveliness, activeness, assertiveness, sensation-seeking, care-free, dominant, surgent/persistent, venturesome
What are traits?
-continuous dimentions of variability along which any person can be placed
What is the neroticism dimension?
-anxious, depressed, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, tense, irrational, shy, woody, and emotional.
What is the psychoticism dimension?
-include aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive, antisocial, unempathic, tough minded
What are extraverts?
-social and impulsive individuals who like excitment and who are oriented toward external reality
What is apperception?
-projecting of a motive as imgery onto an ambiguous external stimulus
What is the thematic apperception test?
-based on the idea that ind. motives are reflected in the imagery that they "apperceive
-read into an ambiguous stimulus
-uses a set of pictures depicting people in ambiguous situations to measure implicit motives
What are manifest needs?
-needs that can be seen in overt actions
What are latent needs?
-needs that aren't being displayed but are very important to one's personality motives
What are 3 criticisms of the Thematic apperception test?
1. low internal consistency and test retest reliability
2. arguable that being instructed to tell several stories creates implicit pressure to avoid repetition
3. takes alot of time and effort to give and score it.
What is achevement motivation?
-the desire to do things well, to feel pressur ein overcoming obstacles
-relected in TAT tests
-having positive feelings about success, or negatvie feelings about failure
What is the need for power?
-motive to have impact on other people
-to have prestige
-to feel strong compared to others
Who are men with high power needs?
-more likly than those with power to say that the ideal wife is a woman who's dependant. An independent woman is a potential threat.
-a dependent woman allows a man to feel superior.
What is the need for affiliation?
-the motive to spend time or interact with others
How do people with the need for affiliation display themselves?
-display concern w/ being accepted and liked by other people in other ways
-get nervous if they think tohers are judging their interpersonal skills
-show a strong preferance for itneraction w/ people who are are warm comapred to reserved
What is personology?
-the study of the entire person
What did Erich Fromm suggest in his studies?
-that humans ahve aneed for rootedness
-that most fundamental relationship is with the mother
What is the need for identity?
-self understanding of who we are as individuals
According to Fromm, what occurs if humans are deprives of scoial stimulation?
-produces deficits in emotional and social relationships, language development, abstract thinking, and inner control
What is simple stimuli?
-evoke primary physiological responses
-ex: if we are attacked, we fight or flee
-produces drives
What is activating stimuli?
-evoke secondary responses and require that you relate to them in a way or another
-produces strives towards goals
What is the receptive character type?
-people who beleive that the source of all good or satisfying events lies outside of themselves
-need to be loved, yet can't love anyone else
-highly dependent, friendly, cheerful, and optimistic
-rely on others for solutions
What is the explicitive character type?
-people who belive that the source of all satisfaction lies beyond themselves
-they actively take whatever they want from others by force
What is the hoarding character type?
-people who have little faith in goodness of the world
-usually withdraw from others
-orderly and obsessed with cleanliness
What is the necrophilous character type?
-people who are attracted to and fascinated by all that is dead: corpses , dirt, decay, feces
-enjoy talking about sickness, burials, and death
-believe that the only way to solve a problem is through violence
-intellectual and unfeeling
What is the market-character type?
-people learn to treat themselves and tohers as commodities with a certain exchange value in a way parallels the interchanges in the economic marketplace
-they ahve little genuine interest in welfare of other people
-treat others as objects and be uses for their own selfish pupose
What is Sociobiology?
-study of the evolutionary for social behavior
What is behavior genetics?
-provides ways to find out whether personality differences are inherited
What occurrs during twin studies?
-correlations among identical twins are compared with correlations among fraternal twins
What occurs during adoption studies?
-children are compared with their biological and adoptive families
-studies of identical twins raised apart provide yet a different look at the effects of inheritance and environment
What do people inherit in their personality?
-general dispositions towards certain levels of activity, forcefulness, emotionality, or sensation seekeing, as well as toward left or right brain dominance and optinum arousal level
How are specific personality traits inherited?
-by inhertiting raw materials
What is the genetic similarity theory?
-the idea that people work toward reproduction of genes simialr to their own
What occurs in a the shared environment?
-factors like socioeconomic status that equally affect all children in the same family appear to have little influence on personality variation.
What occurs in a unshared environment?
-important in personality development
-examples include: a child's place in the family (birth order), way apretns treat children, and illnesses that alter child's health
What is the difference b/t the personalities of adopted children with their biological parents and siblings?
-they tend to resemble each other more than the parents that raised them
What are dizygotic twins?
fraternal twins overlapping genetically 50% on average
What are morozygotic twins?
-identical twins (overlapping genetically 100%)
What is concordance?
-agreement on some characteristics b/t twin and a co-twin
What is a genome?
-sequence of genese contained in a full complement of chromosomes
What is the field of evolutionary psychology?
-emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and survivial of the "fittest" in explaining behavior.
What is natural selection?
-favors those behaviors that increase organisms' reproductve success and their ability to pass their genese on to the next generation
What are chromosomes?
thread-like stuctures that contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
What is DNA
-complex molecule that contains genetic infromation
What are genes?
-unit of hereditary information, which are short segments of DNA
What is a genotype?
-a person's genetic heritage, the actually genetic material
What is a phenotype?
-the way an individual's genotype is expressed is observed and measurable characteristics
What is the correlation in passive genotype environments?
-refers to children inheriting genetic tendencies from their parents and the parent's environment that macthed their genetic tendencies
What is evocative genotype environment?
-refer correlations that occur b/ an adolescents's gentically shapped characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments
What is an active genotype envrionment?
-children seek out envrionments that they find compatible and stimulating
What is sensation?
-occurs when a sensory system detects a stimulus
-as when the inner ear reverberates with sound or the pupil and retina interpret light
How does sensation begin?
-when an outer organ meets anything in the external world that can be seen, heard, touched, tasted, or smelt
What is perception?
-mental processing of sensory information, when the brain interprets a sensation
What is cognition?
-occurs when a person actually thinks about what he or she has perceived
What is vision?
-least mature sense at birth, partly b/c the fetus has nothing to see and thus the connection b/t the eyes and the visual cortext cannot form before birth
What is the male strategy?
-to mate whenever possible and males are drawn to signs of reproductive capability
What is the female strategy?
-to seek the best male available and females are drawn to signs of resources
What are mating pressures?
-may lead to aggression among young men
-theory suggests that violence is most likly among men of reproductive age who are in poor reproductive circumstances
What is stabilizing selection?
-evolution in which intermediate values of a dimension are most adaptive
What does androgen do for children?
-high levels of androgen in girls has been related to greater involvement in sports that involve rough body contact activites that are more typical of boys
Where do high testoerone levels exist?
-in men in prison and thsoe who commit violent crimes
-less likly to marry, have extramarital sex, and commit domestic abuse
What does the hormone oxytocin do?
-to relax and sedate
-reduces fear
-released during orgasm, childbirth, massage, and breast-feeding
What does the left hemisphere of the brain do?
-more active in liguistic and logical tasks
What does the right hemisphere of the brain do?
-spatial, musical, and conducts artistic acts
What is the corpus collosum?
-allows the 2 hemispheres to operate in a coordinated fashion
What is a electroencephalogram?
-used to record electrical activity rom the skin over the skull.
-Neurons throughout the brain fire at various intervals, creating continuous fluctuations in voltage
-electrodesover the scalp senses those changes
What does the positron emission tomography do?
-makes pictures of brain functioning from metabolic activity
What is magnetic resonance imaging?
-mangentic resonances from functoning nerve cells can be translated into a visual image
What is Lithium?
-used to treat manic depressive bipolar disorder
What is the cerebellum?
-responsible for controlling finely coordinated movements such as threading a needle
-also the storehouse for well rehearsed movements such as bike riding, piano playing, and ballet
What is the midbrain?
-controls information from your eyes and skin and allows you to move your eyes to focus and turn your head reflexively to loud noises
What is the substantia nigra?
-small area of the midbrain that allows for smooth initiation of movement.
-allows you to get up out of the chair, lift your hand to swat a fly, or move your mouth to form words
What is the reticular formation?
-involved in arousal and attention
What is the behavioral apporch system?
-system within the brain that moves you toward what you want (incentives)
-it is part of the brain that moves you toward food, shelter when it's raining, sex when youa r ephysically aroused
-responsible for positive emotions such as hope, eagerness, and excitement
What is positive emotionality?
the theory that some people are more predisposed than others to experiance more positive emotions
What is negative emotionality?
-includes those people whop are more predisposed than others to pursue negative emotions
What is the behavior inhibition system?
-sometimes called the avoidant system or withdrawal system
-responsible for inhibiting movement or pulling back from an encounter
-responsive to cues of punishment or anger
What is monoamine oxidase?
-regulates the neurotransmitters dopamine and seratonin
What are epoeple with high seratonin?
-known as sensation seeking individuals
-these people are faster drivers, engage in more riskly antisocial behaviors, morelikly to use drugs over time, more sexually experianced, and responsive and more dissatisfied in their relationships
What is the neurotransitter acetylcholine?
-associated w/ movement and memory
-those w/ Alzheimer's disease show malfunctions w/ this neurotransmitter
What is norepinephrine?
-assoiciated w/ sleep, learning and moods
What occurs w/ the malfunction of norepinephrine?
What is serotonin?
-associated w/ mood and appetite
What occurs due to the malfunction of serotonin?
What is dopamine?
-associated w/ movement and reward
What occurs when dopamine is malfuntioning?
-parkinson's disease and schizophrenia
What is Glutamate?
-associated w/ memory
What occurs when glutamate is malfuntioning?
-neuron loss after stroke
What is the menstrual cycle?
-estrogen levels in blood increase, then progesterone increases, and then both hormones drop b/f menstruation
-the flucuations of these sex hormones may be responsible for PMS
What is the forebrain?
-responsible for processing and making sense of information
What is the hypothalamus?
-controls hunger, thirst, and sex drives
What is rthe hippocampus?
-helps to from new memories
What is the limbic system?
-plays an important role regulating emotion and memory
What is free association?
-asking patients to express every though that occcurred to them, no matter how irrevelant, unimportant, or unpleseant
Who used free association in their practices and what did he believe?
-Sigmund Fraud used it b/t 1892-1895
-believed that patients were resistant and unwilling to discuss memories that were painful and so he wanted to probe their unconsciouness
-found that dreams provided the best means of unlocking the secrets of the unconsciousness
What is the unconscious?
-depository of hidden wishes and impulses that govern the behavior of the ind.
-usually tied to anxiety, conflict, and pain
What is the conscious?
-part of the mind that holds what you're now aware of.
What is the preconscious?
-part of the mind that represents ordinary memory
What did Fraud beleive about libido?
-believed that it is associated w/ psychic, sexual, and pleasurable feelings associated w/ the gratification of the life instincts
What is Id?
-original aspect of personality and considered it to the root in the biology of the ind.
-follows the pleasure principle that needs should be satisfied immediatly
What is the ego?
-organized aspect of the id formed to provide direction for the person's impulses.
-functions to keep the impulses of the id in hceck until a suitable object is found
What is the superego?
-the construct that describes the ind's internalization of societal moral values
-instilled to parents who teach which behaviors are appropriate or inapporpriate in given situations.
What is the conscience?
-is aquired through the use of punishment by the parents
What is ego-ideal?
-learned through the use of rewards
What is anxiety?
-highly unpleasant state that signals a danger to the ego
What is repression?
-an attempt by the ego to keep undesirable id impulses from reaching consciouness
What are cathexes?
-driving forces
What are anticathexes?
-restrainign forces
What if ego forces dominated?
-then wishes would be repressed
What if the id forces dominated?
-the person would "act out" their socially unacceptable impulses
What is suppression?
-conscious blocking of unplesant matters from awareness
What is denial?
-person's refusal to perceive an unplesant event in external reality
What is the oral stage of psychosexual development?
-first pregenital stage in which primary gratifications center around the mouth
What is the anal stage of psychosexual development?
-second pregenital stage in whcih primary gratifications center around the anal cavity
What is the phalic stage of psychosexual development?
-third pregential stage in which primary gratifications are derived from manipulation of the genitals
What is the latency stage of psychosexual development?
-libidinal energy lies dormant and the primary focus is on the development of interests and skills through contact w/ childhood peers
What is the genital stage of psychosexual development?
-final stage in which an attempt is made to develope a mature love relationship w/ a member of the opposite sex.
What is the oedipus complex?
-process during the phallic stage in which the male child desires contact w/ the mother, feels threatened by the father, and eventually resolves the conflict by indetifying w/ the father
What is the electra complex?
-the process of girls abandoning their love relationsiip w/ their mother for a new one w/ their father
-when girls realise they have no penis, they blame their mothers for constraited condition
-ultimatly, the girl wishes that her father would share his penis w/ her through sexual union or provide her w/ a symbolic equivalent such as a baby.
-this is known as penis envy
Wht are death instincts(thanatos)?
-self destructive instincts, often turned outward as aggression
-life provides a vehicle for death and eople unconsciously desire to return to the inanimate state
-usually held back by life instincts
What is ambivalence?
What is sadism?
When sexual and agressive energies are fused together
What is catharsis?
-build up and release of energy when control is lost of the id impulse
-aggression and sexual instinctive behavior is over controlled and ultimatly released
What is anxiety?
-warning signal to the ego
What is reality anxiety?
-fear of a threat in thw world
What is neurotic anxiety?
-fear that id impulses wil get out of control and get yhou in trouble
What is moral anxiety?
-fear of violating the superego's moral code
How does the ego deal with ansxiety?
-by employing defense mechanisms
What is repression?
forces id impulses and other threatening material out of consciousness
What is projection?
atrtibuting your unacceptable impulse to someone else
-it is a way to hide your knowledge of a disliked aspect of yourself, while still expressing that unacceptable quality
What is rationalization?
developing a plausible and acceptable but incorrect explanation for your action
-the person reduces anxiety by finding a rational explanation(excuse) for a behavior that is really done for unacceptable reasons
What is intellectualization?
-separating your thoughts from your feelings and allowing the thoughts but not the feelings to enter awareness
What is reactuion formation?
behaving ina way oppisite to the intial impulswe
What is regression?
-returning to a mode of behavior characteristic of a earlier stage of development
-giving up a more advanced form of coping in favor of one that's more primative and infantile
-can occur at any period in development
What is displacement?>
shifting an impulse from one target to another, usually a safer one
What is sublimation?
-tranforming an unaccepotable impulse to an acceptable one
What is paraprexes?
memory lapses, slips of speech, and accidents which provide direct insights into a person's true desires (fraudian slip)
What is resistance?
-when people in therapy activly fight against becoming aware of repressed conflicts and impulseS
-can be conscious or unconcious
-unconscious resistance reflects an automatic use of ego defenses against the possibility of anxiety
What is manifest content?
-what;s in a dream
What is latent concent?
-determinents of the dreAM
what is wish fulfillment?
-creation of an unconscious image of a desired object
What does the ego follow?
-the reality principle
What is the reality principle?
taking into account of externalk reality in addition to internal needs and urges
What is the ego's goal?
-is not to block the id's desires permanently
-wants them to be satisfied at a time and ina way that's safe and won;t cause trouble
What is extraversion of the five factor model?
grounded in assertiveness, and open expression of impulses, domiance \, confidence, assurance, and sense of sociability
What is agreeableness of the five facotr model?
-maintaining firendships/reklationships, warm, likeable, emotionakl, supportiveness, and nurteurance
What is conscientious of the five factor model?
-will to acheive, constraint responsibility, planning, persistancem, and puroposeful striving toward goals
What is emotuionality/neuroticism of the five facotr modekl?
-emotional disorganisation, subjective4 experiance of anxiety
What is intellect of the five facotr model?
openess to experiance, kowledgeable, originakl, verbal,a nd imaginative
What is situationism?
What is interactionism?
-the idea that traitis and situations interact to influence behavior
What is the diathesis stress model?
-theory holding that a vulnerability plus stress creates problems in behavior
what is the need for affection and approval?
-kissing, hugging, say nice things/compliments, give attention, hold hands, buy flowers, and sex/intimacy
What is rhe need for a artner to take over one's life?
-taking care of someone emotionally, finacially, physically, sexually, and spiritually
What is rhe need to restric one's life within narrow borders
-routine and orderliness
What is the neurotic need for power?
-protectgion against helplessness
What is th need to exploit otghers?
-constant fear others will take advantage of them. Attempt to cheat or exploit others
What is the need for social recognition and prestige?
-gender, ability, class, sex. orientation, and religion
What is the need for personal admiration?
-respect leads to acceptance of self
-like who you are/confidence
-take care of myself and education (good decisions)
What is the need for personal acheivement?
-indiscriminate, ambition, and wanting to do the best in your area
What is the need for self-sufficiency and independence?
Whow as Karen Horney?
-a neo-psychoanalytic theorist who belives that fraud w\had palced too nuych emphasis on sexual insticts in the formation fo neurosis and not enough on the cultural and social conditions that fostered pathology
What did Karen Horney blieve?
-that neorsis origniated in the disturbed relationship b/t parents and children
What did negativ efactors b/t parent and child cause?
-created basic anxiety
-feeling of being isolated and helpless ina potentially hostile world
What are the three basic neurotic trends?
-comlkiant types
-aggressive types
-detached types
What needs do compliant types have?
-have more neurotic needs for affection and approval, for a partner to control their lives,m and for a life within restricted borders
How do comlkiant types act?
-theyw ant to be liked, wanted, loved, appreciated protection, and guided by others
-they desperatly try to live up to the expectations of tohers
How do aggressiv etypes act?
-moved against people
-belive thart only strong survive by annilating the weak
-regard feelings as "sloppy sentimentallity", highly competive and hard working
What are the needs of aggressvie types?
-the neurotic need for power and exploitation, social recognition, prestig\e, andsonal admiration
How do detached tyhpes axct?
-move away from people, shoud themesleves in secrecy, relicant to divulge even the most trival details of their lives
-prefer to work, eat, and sleep alone in order to prevent being disturbed by others
Whata re the needs of detached types?
-indescrimnatge needs for self-sufficiency, and perfecton and unassailability
What are non-nweurotic people?
-people whoa re much more flexibled and can alternativly give in to toehrs, fight others, or keep to themselves as appropriate
What are blind spots?
-areas ion which obvious contradictions are ignored by neurotics because they are inordiantly numb to their own experiances
What is comaoprtimentalization?
-refers to the separation of beliefs or actions into categories so they do not appear inconsisted w/ one another
What is rationalization?
-plausible excuses to justify one's perceived weakness or failures
What is excessive self-control?
-compulsive need to restrict expression of emotions
What is arbitrary rightness?
-neurotic attempot to settle all disputes by declaring dogmatically that they are invariably right
What is elusiveness?
-denying ever having made a statement of claim that the other person misinterpreted their meaning
What is cynicism?
-denying and deriding moral values