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38 Cards in this Set

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Describe relationship between nutrition and disease
inadequate nutrition can lead to disease and a diseased animal often has different nutrient requirements
Define nutrition
-ingestion, assimilation and use of nutrients
-involves various chemical and physiological activities which transform food components into body components
Define nutrient
-any food constituent that aids in the support of life.
-chemical substances found in feed materials that can be used and are necessary for the maintenance, production, and health of animals
Define essential (indispensible) nutrient
substance that must be obtained from the diet because the body cannot make it or make adequate amounts of it
Define nonessential (dispensible) nutrient
one that the body can make in sufficient quantities if it is lacking in the diet
Define macronutrient
nutrient required in large amounts for the normal body function
-Ex: water, carbs, proteins lipids
Define micronutrient
nutrient needed only in small amounts for normal body functions
-Ex: vitamins or minerals
Define organic nutrient
nutrient that contain C--C or C--H bonds
-Ex: carbs, proteins, lipids, vitamins
Define inorganic nutrient
nutrient that does not contain carbon to carbon or carbon to hydrogen bonds
-Ex: water, minerals
Define nutraceutical
defined nutrients or other compounds found in feed/food that give a pharmacologic effect at a concentration greater than what is required to prevent deficiency
-can prevent or treat disease (medical and health benefits)
Define Phytochemical
health promoting compounds found in plants
-not essential nutrients
-Ex: antioxidants
Define Zoonutrient
health promoting compound found in animal tissue
-Ex: omega-3 fatty acids
Define functional food
foods that contain one or more substances such as essential nutrient, phytochemical or zoonutrient thought to influence health
-ex: soy milk for bone health/brain/immune function
What are the 3 steps in the Three step process of optimal nutrition?
1. Who are you feeding?
2. What are you feeding?
3. How do you feed the animal?
What are some techniques that are used to assess animal health and performance?
-Physical exam
-Chemical analysis of body tissues, blood, etc
-Examination of records, performance, production
-Occurrence of disease
How are nutrients quantified in the common feeding standards?
-quantities of nutrients required per day
-or as a percentage of a diet
List components of Maintenance Requirement
1. Repair of body tissues
2. Heat for body temperature in the comfort zone
3. Minimal muscle work
4. Energy to ingest, assimilate use and excrete nutrients
5. BMR
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)-minimum energy needed to maintain vital functions in a fasting individual who is awake and resting in a comfortably warm environment
Explain relationship between Maintenance Requirement and size of the animal
It DECREASES per unit BW as an animal gets larger
Ex: rats need more calories per unit BW than an elephant
List internal factors that may alter Maintenance Requirement
1. Growth (age, gender, breed, growth rate)
2. Reproduction (lactation, gestation, conception)
3. Work (duration and type)
4. Others (Illness, hormonal imbalance, immune function, stress etc)
List external factors that may alter Maintenance Requirement
1. Temperature (extra energy is needed for extremes out of comfort zone)
2. Weather
3. Housing
4. Sanitation
What are the major functions of water in the body metabolism?
1. solvent
2. transport medium
3. dilutent
4. chemical reactions
5. lubricant
6. regulation of body temperature
What are the major sources of body water?
1. drinking free water
2. in or on feed
3. metabolic water from nutrient oxidation
What is the relationship among body water, age and body fat content?
Water content of body water decreases with age and body fat content
Describe factors that alter water requirements
Affected by factors that influence water loss:
1. dry matter intake
2. physiological state
3. ambient temperature
4. genotype
What is the approximate daily water consumption of swine, sheep, horse, cow, poultry, dog and cat?
-Swine: 1.5-3 gal/day
-Sheep: 1-3 gal/day
-Horse: 10-14 gal/day
-Dry, pregnant Cow: 10-14 gal/day
-Lactating cow: 25-55 gal/day
-Poultry: 2 parts water/1 part dry feed
-Dog/cat: 60ml/ kg BW
Describe clinical signs associated with water restriction (dehydration).
Reduces: feed intake; productivity; urine and fecal water excretion; weight loss
Increases: temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, nausea, irritability
Define Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
total amount of minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions dissolved in water
-causes salty, bitter or metallic taste, diarrhea.
Define water hardness
-Ca and Mg carbonate in water
-TDS is indicator of hardness, but they are not the same thing
Define: Essential AA
one that the body is unable to make or can only make in inadequate amounts (10, 11 for cats)
Define: Non-essential AA
one that the body can make in large enough quantities (10-12)
Define: Conditionally essential AA
one that can become essential in certain physiologic conditions
What are the 10 essential AAs and what is the "extra" one in the cat?
-Taurine is needed for cats
What is the importance of essential amino acid content in the diet of ruminant animal?
-Microbes utilize N, AAs and peptides for their protein synthesis
-they convert dietary protein into their own protein
Assess how the protein structure influences nutritional value of dietary proteins and protein digestibility
Primary structure= nutritional value
Tertiaary structure=protein digestibility
-globular proteins are more easily digested than filamentous proteins
Quaternary= protein function
Describe the major functions of proteins
1. structural and mechanical
2. enzymes
3. hormones
4. immune function
5. fluid balance
6. regulation of pH
7. transport proteins
Characterize protein usage in times of need and abundance.
Need: converted to glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis, oxidation for energy). All AAs can be used for ATP production-->the last to be used for energy
Abundant:excess AAs are converted to fatty acids
Contrast differences in approximate protein requirement among carnivores, omnivores and herbivores.
-carnivores-High protein requirement (30-50% protein); short digestive tract; need highly digestible animal proteins
-omnivores-Mid-range protein requirement (15-30% DMB). Eat and digest animal and plant protein sources. Effectively digest starches
-herbivores-Low protein requirements (8-16% DMB) Enlarged fore-stomach or hind gut. Utilize extensive fiber in the diet (bacterial degradation of feed stuffs)
What is the fate of excess dietary protein when fed to an animal?
Waste protein is excreted as urea via kidneys. Excess proteins are converted to fatty acids, protein synthesis, conversion to lipids