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339 Cards in this Set

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Protein turnover
Allows our bodies to make more of a protein that we might need immediately and less of another portein that is not quite cruical at the time.
What is an example of fast turnover?
Intestine
blood
What is an example of medium turnover?
muscle
skin
What is an example of slow turnover?
brain
central nervous system
What is an example of a dead-end protein? What is it?
Proteins that are lost to the body. Examples include hair, skin, nails, and stool (a small part of your intestinal tract).
What happens if you overconsume protein?
The nitrogen gets taken off the amino acid. It could make a non-essential amino acid, but you don't need it. The body gets rid of it via urine. The carbon skeleton is potential energy and can get covnerted to and stored as fat.
How many essential amino acids are there?
Nine. These can't be made in the body and are needed in the diet. These are referred as EAA. R group on these nine essential amino acids can't be made by our metabolic machinery.
How many non-essential amino acids are there?
11. These do not need to be in your diet since you have the ability to make the NEAA from other components in your diet. But you do need a source of nitrogen in your diet to build a NEAA.
What is the end product of protein digestion?
Individual amino acids from food and from digested intestinal track cell protein.
Consider a tuna, hair, muscle, and fish protein. Would you expect the amount of essential amino acids to be the same? http://www.flashcardexchange.com/mycards/add/427583
Add FlashcardsWhy?
No. Each protein has a unique sequence of amino acids. Fish protein has a different sequence of amino acids than a muscle protein.
What happens if you get a really poor source of protein?
In 30 days, you will get really sick. The fast turonver proteins will go haywire (intestinal tract). Diarrhea will be a huge indicator of this. The brain, on the other hand, will remain in tact.
True or false, if I give you more of the essential amino acid, you'll have enough two weeks from now to make up for a deficient diet.
False. There is no storage of protein or amino acids.
Protein deficiency most dramatically affects...
high turnover proteins.
Protein deficiency during early development results in..
mental retardation
reduced growth or stunting
What is the RDA for protein for adult men and women?
.8 grams of protein/kg body weight per day. Notice that there is no gender difference.
What are the three basic functions of fat?
Energy
Regulation: Hormones, notably testoterone and estrogen, are made from fat and cholesterol
Structure: Surrounds organs, helps protech and cushion. Makes up cell membranes.
What is a triglyceride
The major form of fat. Triglycerides serve as the backbone of many types of lipids (fats)
What is a triglyceride made of
Fatty acids on a three carbon backbone (called glycerol)
What are the two types of fatty acids?
Saturated and unsaturated.
What are fatty acids?
Long chains of carbon that are typically even in number and range from about 4 - 26 carbons.
What is definition of saturated in fat terms?
Each carbon is fully saturated with hydrogen atoms
What is a food fat like if it has predominantly saturated fatty acids?
it is solid at room teperature.
What are the most common saturated fatty acids?
Palmitic acid (16C) and Stearic acid (18C).
How is the unsaturated fatty acid different from a saturated fatty acid?
This fatty acid is not fully saturated w/ hydrogen. Because carbon atoms must still maintain the four bond rule, the chemical bond between two carbon atoms is a carbon-carbon double bond.
What is the predominate fatty acid found on the triglyceride from olive oil?
Oleic acid.
Give an example of how unsaturated fatty acids rperesented.
18:1, reflects the number of C atoms and the number of double bonds. A 1 means it is a monounsaturated fatty acid.
What does the double bond do in the unsaturated fatty acid?
The double bond puts a bend or crimp in the strand of carbons. The unsaturated fatty acids do not stack up neatly and increases movement causing the fatty acids to be liquid at room temp.
Name two essential unsaturated fatty acids and give an example of a food source of each.
Linoleic Acid (18:2); corn, sunflower, soybean
Linolenic acid (18:3); flaxseed oil & meal, fish
What is the role of essential fats?
Cell membrane structure: Cell membrane is made up of two layers of fatty acids. Allow the cell membrane to have a very fluid character while serving as a barrier
Prostaglandin Formation: Essential fats are converted to a series of substances called prostaglandins.
What are prostoglandins?
Act much like hormones in specific locations in the body such as in blood vessels and in te uterus, mediating blood clot formation and uterine contractions. Mediate the inflammatory response such as with swelling from an injury.
How much linoleic 18:2 do we need?
12 - 17 grams, or 5 - 10 percent of our total calories from this fat.
How much linolenic 18:3 do we need?
1.1. to 1.6 grams or about 1% of our total claories as omega-3 fat daily.
What kind of fat is in meat (animal products)?
Saturated fat, low in 18:2 and 18:3
What kind of fat is in vegetables?
Unsaturated fat. High 18:2.
What is rancidity?
When a food fat is allowed to sit exposed to the air, the free radicals that form can change the taste and appearance of the food.
What is hydrogenation?
Converts an unsaturated fatty acid to a saturated one. Hydrogen gas is bubbled into a vat of vegetable oil in the presence of a catalyst to start the reaction of undoing the C=C bond. Hydrogen is added making the oil a saturated fat, thus a solid.
What are some of the results of hydrogenation?
Fat is now more stable, having a longer shelf life and it can now be stored at room temp.
From liquid to solid.
Usaturated fatty acids are now saturated.
Because you remove C=C bonds, 18:2 and 18:3 are no longer present.
Forms trans fatty acid.
What do trans fats do?
Increase risk of heart diseas by indrirectly boosting blood cholesterol levels.
What are some fat replacement methods?
Protein: can be whipped to make it feel like fat in your mouth. Can't cook it because it will denature the protein.
Corn starch, fruit purees and oat fiberAdded to foods such as baked goods.
Fat as mono and diglycerides
Water
What is olestra?
A synthetic fat replacement for use in snack foods.
Can olestar be digested? Where does it go?
No. No olestra digestive enzymes. Goes into stool. Takes with it some fat soluble nutrients. Attracts vit. A,D, E, K and carotenoids.
Consuming large amounts of foods made w/ olestra may present some gastrointestinal problems.
How does fat get broken down?
Because we are 55% water, the body and fat don't seem to mix. Fat mixes w/ a substance called bile (made from cholesterol in the liver). Once the solution has been emulsified, the enzyme lipase starts to chemically digest the triglycerids.
What does lipase do?
Lipase breaks off fatty acids from the triglycerides leaving monoglycerides and free fatty acids.
What are micelles?
Fat droplets that form a droplet. Contain a combo of fatty acids and monglycerides.
What happens once micelles are formed?
They migrate to the surface of the small intestine where they are absorbed.
What needs to happen before the triglycerides can ove into the blood?
A protein coating is put on the outside to make teh fat acceptable to travel in the blood. This new fat + protein comob is called a chylomicron.
What is the function of a chylomicron?
Venture out in the circulation as a transport vehicle for triglyceride to cells. These are on of several types of lipoproteins, whic are the transport form of fat in the ciruclation. Migrate from small instestine wall into the ciruclation to deliver triglyceride to the cells of the body.
What happens after the chylomicron fatigues and heads to the liver?
The liver repackages the remaining triglyceride along with any new fat that has been made from excess protein or carbohydrate. This regrouped triglyceride gets on a new "bus" and is shipped out of the liver. This new lipoprotein is called VLDL - very low density lipoprotein.
What is VLDL?
Another lipoprotein. Transports triglyceride to cells. It is a more compact or smaller version of a chylomicron with different proteins.
What happens to triglyceiride inside a muscle cell?
Triglyceride is broken apart to release the fatty acids. These fatty acids contain potential energy and are broken down into C2 units. C2 units are sent through TCA cycle. Enery is realsed and oxygen is used (aerobic).
What is the end product of fat energy metabolism?
9 calories/gram + CO2 + H20.
What is obesity in terms of BMI?
BMI equal to or more than 30.
What happens to nutrients following a meal?
They get put into storage
What happens to nutrietns when you haven't eaten for several hours?
Energy nutrients are brought out of storage.
What happens during fasting?
Glycogen stores in both the liver and muscle have run out.
What is the formula for BMI?
weight (kg) / height^2 (m)
Why is protein lost during a fast?
Fatty acids are not converted to c3 units (proteins can be). Thus, protein must be used so that C2 must get metabolized.
What is ketones?
form as C2 units building up in part because carbs are lacking to turn the cycle efficiently. Gives a characteristic breath odor of acetone. Called ketosis.
What is BMI for a normal person? Overweight?
18.5 - 24; 25 - 29
What is cholesterol?
fatty, waxy like substance in the body and is handled like fat.
What are some functions of cholesterol?
Precursor to bile
Precursor to sex hormone
Precursor to vitamin D: cholesterol goes through a series of modifications in our body for eventual conversion to vitamin D.
Component of cell membrane structure: sits in the cell membrane as a vital component giving the membrane its ability, in part, to control what goes in and out of the cell.
What is one drawback of BMI?
May erroneously determine obesity for individuals who have large amounts of muslce mass.
What is cholesterol made of? Where?
Cholesterol is not an essential nutrient. Made in the liver. Made from C2 units that result from breakdown of fats, protein, or carbs.
How much cholesterol does the body manufacture each day?
1000-1500 milligrams.
What are the two types of obesity?
Lower and upper body obesity
How much cholesterol do we usually take in / day?
200-400 mg.
What are some food sources of cholesterol?
Any animal product. Beef, chicken, seafood, eggs, milk, liver.
What are some highlights of lower body obesity?
-Pear shaped or "gynoid" obesity.
-Excess fat stored in the hip and thigh region.
-More common in women
-Fat in this region is more resistant to weight loss.
-In the absence of other health factors such as high blood pressure or blood cholesterol, does not pose significant health risk.
What happens when I eat a food that contains cholesterol?
It is absorbed long w/ fat in the micelle in the small intestinal wall, and then moves through the ciruclation as a passenger in chylomicrons.
What are some highlights of upper body obesity?
-Sometimes called apple shaped or "android" obesity
-Excess fat is stored in the abs/trunk area (beer belly).
-More common in men.
-Assoicated w/ greater risk of health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. This is visceral fat.
What three items are chylomicrons made up of?
Triglyceride, cholesterol, and a protein coat.
Where does the cholesterol finally end up after riding in the chylomicron?
Cholsterol stays on board the bus anda fter several hours ends up in the liver. It is repackaged / triglycerid and sent ou in the VLD.
What is viseceral fat?
Fat that is underneath the abdominal muscle wall and is near organs such as the liver and heart.
What happens to VLDL as it drops off triglycerides?
While it does this at fat and msucle cells, choldesterol stays on board. As this happens, the VLDL transforms: it becomes smaller and smaller (proportionately high cholesterol). Now becomes LDL -Low density Liprotein.
What is LDL made up of?
Triglyceride, cholesterol, and a protein coat, but in smaller amounts.
What does LDL do?
Delivers cholesterol to cells. Looks for cell receptors on the surface of the cells to know if the LDL should make a stop and deliver cholesterol.
How do you determine upper body obesity?
waist/hip ratio.
Shouldn't be more than .95 in men and .8 in women.
What is HDL?
High density lipoprotein. Made up of triglyceride, cholesterol and protein coat. Proportionally richer in protein, so its heavier.
What is the function of HDL? Where does it come from?
HDL originates from the liver and has a very specific job. It acts like a scavenger. Picks up loose cholesterol that has fallen from lipoproteins or from dying cells. HDL travels to the liver where the cholesterol can get off and have the opportunity to become bile and leave the body or be reyclced back via VLD.
What are the health risks associated w/ obesity?
Cardiovascular disease
High blood cholesterol
Hypertension (high bp0
diabetes
Certain types of cancer
Osteoarthritis
Emotional disturbances
True or false? Women tend to have higher levels of HDL compared to men.
True. Related to greater estrogen levels. Once a woman goes through menopause, however, levels of HDL delcine as this hormone plays a role in the formation of HDL. Heart disease risk subsequently goes up.
What happens to your arteries by about age 10?
LDL particles have started crashing into your artery walls. White blood cells then attack the area to fight off what they see as invaders. Cholesterol spills and is deposited and hardens, making a plaque. Overtime this gets larger and compromises the opening.
LDL damage is referred to as what?
Oxidation.
What is fat stored as?
Fat is stored as triglyceride in cells called adipose cells.
What happens once LDL "drives" out of control?
Like a real crash scene, debris litters the roadway. Cholesterol spills out, infiltrates the arteries and builds up into plaque. This draws platelets to the scene which form a blood clot. This process of crashing continues over time and vascular disease develops, leading to a heart attack or stroke.
Describe an adipose cell
Has a fat storage compartment which can expand to hold more triglyceride or contract as triglyceride comes out of storage for energy use. When ergy intake exceeds expenditure, triglyceride strorage increases and fat cells expand.
What are the risk factors that predispose a person to increased chances of suffering a heart attack or stroke?
Cigarette smoking, Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, heredity, increasing age, obesity, male sex, inactivity, dietary factors
What is hypercholesterolemia?
low HDL, high LDL
What is metabolic syndrome?
A cluster of certain coronary artery disease risk factors. Characterized by three or more factors, and is thought to pose a greater threat to heart health in combo than the risk factors individually.
-Waist >35 for women, >40 for men.
-High fasting blood triglyceride level
-Low HDL level
-Elevated blood pressure
-High fasting blood glucose
What are considered healthy levels of cholesterol?
Below 200mg/dL
What is the enzyme vital to the storage of triglyceride?
lipoprotein lipase or LPL.
What is borderline cholesterol level?
200-239 mg/dL
What factors influence LPL?
-LPL is more active at certain fat depot sites than others. Adipose in the hip and thigh region appear to have more active LPL than elsewhere in the body. Greater in the ab region for men.
-Hormone changes (prergnant woman = LPL activity goes up in breasts).
-Following weight loss: LPL activity goes up. Adipose cell wants to store fat, filling the fat cell back up despite your efforts and desires for lasting wight loss. (Makes sense in ancestoral terms).
-Exercise: When a person is physically active, their muscles need the triglycerides for fuel and their fat cells can do without. Thus, LPL activity at fat cells decline while this same enzyme that exists at muscle cells increases to meet energy demands at the muscle.
What is an optimal LDL level?
<100 mg/dL
What is above optimal LDL level?
100-129 mg/dL
What is borderline high risk LDL level?
130-159 mg/dL
when does the number of adipose cells NORMALLY increase?
During periods of growth.
1) Third trimester of pregnancy. This is when energy stores in the fetus are increased.
2. During adolescent growth spurt, approx. 12 - 14 years old.
What is high risk LDL level?
160-189 mg/dL
What is the high risk level for HDL?
<35 mg/dL (low)
What is the low risk level for HDL?
>60 mg/dL (high).
True or false? Excess weight gain during growth stage correlates to obesity later in life.
True. Excess body fat, defined as obesity during teen years, runs the risk of about 70 to 80 percent chance of being obese as an adult.
What is the correlation between fat intake and heart disease risk?
Positive.
What is the effect of a high saturated fat diet?
Elevates LDL levels.
Increases hard disease risk.
Trans fats alos raise LDL levels.
What happens once fat cell number is made?
Once a fat cell is made, it does not go away. With weight loss, fat cells shrink, but they do not go away.
What is the effect of monounsaturated fats as a major source?
Can lower total cholesterol levels (when substituted for saturated fats)
Can lower LDL levels
Neutral to HDL levels.

Consume 10% or more but no more than 20%.
What is the effect of polyunsaturated fat as a major source?
can lower total cholesterol when substituted for other fats in the diet.
Can lower LDL levels.
Can also lower HDL levels. Limit intake to 10% of calories.
What are some internal factors that impact food intake control?
Brain centers: Arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the hypothalamus respons to signals such as blood metabolites and hormones that stimulate or suppress eating.
Brain chemicals: serotonin, a chemical produced in the brain that exerts feelings of calmness, has been show to influence eating.
Does eating cholesterol mean that blood cholesterol levels are impacted?
For most of the population, homeostasis is in efect. For others, however, due to genetics or other lifestyle factors, liver keeps pumping out cholesterol (we make our own). The end result is increased levels of total cholesterol and particularly high levels of LDL.
What are minerals?
Minerals are elemental substances other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are inorganic.
How does water soluble fiber lower heart disease risk?
Can lower blood cholesterol levels by binding bile and cholesterol in the instenial tract and therefore block cholesterol absorption and even effectively drains some of the cholesterol from the body.
What does water soluble fiber do to bile?
It attracts bile, which ultimately comes from the liver (made from cholesterol), effectively taking away some of the body's cholesterol. The end result is a lowering of cholesterol levels.
What are some "Dietary Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Heart Disease?"
-Total dietary intake fat should be less than 30% of total calories.
-Saturated fat should be less than 10%
-Cholesterol intake should be less tahn 300 mg.
-Fiber 25 g/ day.
-Salt intake <6 grams per day (2400mg)
-Limit alcohol
-Achieve healthy weight
-Physical activity
What is the general theme of the body that has profound implications in relation to obesity?
The body is designed to defend against weight loss.
What is the Daily Value requirement for Total Fat? Saturated Fat?
Total fat - 65 grams
Saturated fat - 20 grams
How much of your body weight do minerals represent?
5 - 6%
What are some peripheral factors that impact food intake control?
Hormones: insulin, sex hormones. INsulin signals the brain, and food intake is increased.
Fat mass and fat cell size: Hormone released by fat cells called leptin signals the brain that fat stores are adequate and this lessens eating and stimulates metabolism. If fat cells have shrunk due to weight loss, leptin levels decrease and food intake increases so as to fill fat stores back up.
Stomach signals: Sends out hormone ghrelin. Stimulate eating. Intestinal tract releases CCK and tells the brain in response to eating that you're full or satisfied.
Exercise: short term, inhibits food intake. Long ter, intake increases w/ regular exerice but a person has typically has less body fat, smaller fat cells, and the body has the ability to burn fat at muscle cells more effectively.
What do your fat stores reflect?
Your energy balance. If calorie intake equals output, fat stores remains constant.
What is obesity?
Excess body fat that contributes to adverse health effects.
Obesit is a body weight more than...
20% above desirable body weight, which is based upon a heigh-weight for a given height.
What are some external factors taht affect food intake control?
time of day: we eat based on the clock.
temperature: warmer-supress hunger, colder-stimulate hunger
eating cues: People at buffets eat more than when given a few foods. Larger portion = more we eat.
What is wrong w/ measuring obesity in terms of body weight?
Great for assesing a large group of people, but can be inaccurate for people who have large muscle mass but low body fat.
What is the obesity limit for men and women in terms of body fat?
Men: more than 20-25% body fat for men.
Women: more than 30% body fat for women.
What is the only source of minerals?
Food and water.
What are some theories as to why obesity develops?
calorie imabalance: eating excess calories when calorie output is constant, means excess is converted to and stored as fat. Energy gap of approx. 50-100 calories daily can lead to one to two pounds of weight gain per year.
Inactivity:
Genetic influences: Genetic predisposition to put away fat more efficiently or burn fewer calories
Set point: a person w/ more adipose cells may be "doomed" to be obese, but excercise can overcome this by encouraging fat cells to accept being msaller.
Thrifty metabolism: person conserves or uses less energy than another person of equal body size.
Diet composition: high fat diet leads to excess weight gain.
Meal pattern: skipping meals may lead to overeating at the next meal.
What are some ways to measure body fat?
Skin fold thickness
Underwater weighing
Bioelectrical impedance (fat does not conduct electricity well due to lack of water).
What are the three components to a successful weight loss program?
Reduced energy diet
Behavior modification
Physical activity or exercise
What roles do minerals funciton in? What do they not do?
Function in a regulatory and/or structural role. Do not provide energy.
What are some highlights of a reduced energy diet?
Consuming a diet that meets nutrient needs (protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals) except for energy.
Meeting individuals tastes and habits: Forbidding foods such as sweets or making a person eat food that they don't care about often result in failure when the individual reverts to overeating their favorite foods.
Designing a plan that minimizes fatigue and hunger: Lose 1 - 2 lbs / week. Translates into a calorie gap of 250 - 1000 calories per day. Can be created by exercise and cutting back.
Where do minerals come from?
Originate from rocks and make their way into water, soil and eventually plants, animals, and then us.
What are some highlights of behavior modification?
Changing current eating behavior leads to decreased calorie intake and the establishment of new eating behaviors conducive to weight loss and maintenance.
What is the criteria for anorexia?
-below or less than 85% of expected healthy body weight.
-intense fear of becoming fat even though the person is underweight for height
-distortion of body image
-loss of regular menstrual cycle
What are some highlights of major minerals?
Present in the body at levels greater than .01%
Required in amounts greater than 100 mg/day
Function in both structural and regulatory roles
what are some characterisitics of a person w/ bulimia?
-eating large amounts of food in a short or discrete period of time. Binges are planned and carried out in privacy.
-a feeling of no control during the binge, followed by extreme guilt.
-purging type of behavior follows the binge
-behavior occurs twice a week for at least three months for builimia to be diagnosed.
What are some examples of major minerals?
Calcium, phsophorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride.
What are some nutritional problems associate w/ anorexia?
-protein deficiency
-calcium deficieincy
-zinc and iron deficiency
-vitamin deficiencies
-fine hair coves body (body tries to stay warm)
-person is often chilled much of the time.
what are some nutritional problems associated w/ bulimia?
-loss of potassium due to heavy vomitting
-loss of fat soluble vitamins when laxatives are abused
-erosin of teeth enamel due to acid in vomit.
What are some highlights of physical activity and weight loss?
1. Food intake control: people who excercise regularly eat more. Excercise must allow body to better balance in and out.
2. Body weight, fat loss, lean tissue preservation
3. increased metabolism: boosts BMR sot that person is burning more calories at rest
4. Weight maintenance: people who excercise keep weight off better than people who just diet.
5. Improved sense of well being.
6. Chronic disease prevention.
What are some highlights of trace minerals?
present in the body at levels less than .01% of the body weight.
Required in amounts less than 50 mg/day
Function primarily in regulatory roels
What are some examples of trace minerals?
iron, zinc, copper, seleium, fluoride, iodien, and manganese
What is bioavailability?
Amount or proportion (percentage) of a nutrient and in our case, mineral that is available for absorption. For example: the bioavailability of nutrients is about 90 - 95%. We absorb 90 - 95% of nutrients ingested.
What is the function of calcium?
Structure and regulatory
Where is most of the body's calcium found?
Approx. 99% of the body's calcium is found in your teeth and bones.
What are osteoblasts?
Cells that are responsible for bone formation
What are osteoclasts?
Cells taht are responsible for the demolition of bone.
How do osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together?
They work together over time to determine bone growth and bone changes.
Until what age can you build bone mineral content or density (calcium)?
25 to 30
What is the regulatory role of calcium?
Remaining one percent preforms roles such as blood clot formation and in muscle and nerve cell impulse transmission. As an example: the heart needs proper levels of calcium for normal functioning.
What is calmodulin?
Calcium binding protein that mediates many cellular processes such as cell division and cell secretions.
What happens if you have a calcium defficiency diet?
Your body robs your bones of calcium.
How is calcium homeostasis achieved?
1. Signal sent to the intesntines - vitamin D which is needed to make a protein carrier for calcium absorption to help boost bioavailability.
2. Hormones work on the excretion end and tell the kidenys not to excrete as much of this mineral in urine.
3. Osteoclasts in the bone are stimulated to release calcium into the bloodstream.
What is the price for having a calcium deficient diet if you are a child?
Bones become soft and bow w/ the weight. Condition is called rickets.
What happens to adults with a calcium deficient diet?
Osteoporosis develops.
What are some highlights of osteoporosis?
Risk increases with age
Risk increases with long term low calcium intake
Risk is greater for women than men
Risk is greater in inactive people
Smoking and heavy alcohol consumpition speed mineral loss from the bone
There is eveidence that a high intake of sodium from processed foods and possibly coffee may accelerate bone mineral loss in some people.
What is the calcium bioavailability for adults?
30%
When does the bioavailability of calcium boost?
During times such as pregnancy and during teen years and times of rapid growth.
when does the bioavailability of calcium decrease?
In the presence of particular food factors: phytate (phytic acid) found in while grains and oxalate (oxalic acid) found in leafy green vegetables - they bind to calcium and decrease its absorption.
What are some food sources of calcium?
Dariy, Cheese, Yougurt, Tofu, Brocooli
What is the safe tolerable upper limit for calcium?
2500 mg/day.
What are sodium and potassium called?
Electrolytes: minerals which dissolve in water and can form or carry an electrical charge.
what is the function of sodium and potassium?
Both are cruical in the regulation of fluid homeostasis.
How do sodium and potassium work together to maintain homeostasis?
Majority of soidum is located outside the cell. Potassium is located in side the cell (2/3 of the water is inside the cell). Sodium and potassium work together to maintain the fluid balance and also maintenace of healthy blood pressure.
Besides homeostasis, what are sodium and potassium responsible for?
Serve in the transmission of nerve impulses.
How does one become sodium or potassium deficient?
From a sudden loss of body fluids. May occur w/ heavy sweating or bouts of vomitting and diarrhea.
What are some symptoms of sodium potassium deficiency?
Drop inblood pressure (light headed, dizzy feeling). Muscle weakness and cramping.
During long bouts of exercise, drinking copious amounts of water can lead to a dilution of soidum in the circulation called hponatremia.
what is hyponatremia?
During long bouts of exercise, the copious intake of plain water can lead to dilution of sodium in the circulation. condition can be life threatening.
what is the bioavailability of sodium and potassium?
60 - 80%
What is the DRI for sodium? Potassium?
1500 mg/day. 4,700 mg/day
What is a consequence of a high sodium intake?
high blood pressure.
What is the daily value for sodium and potassium?
Sodium: 2400 mg/day
Potassium: 3500 mg/day
What are good food sources of sodium? Potassium?
Sodium: soy sauce, canned soup, cheese
Potassium: banana, plain yogur, orange juice, melon, potato
What is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide?
Iron deficiency
What is iron's regulatory purpose?
Iron is most noted for its ability to carry oxygen.
In the blood cell, iron is part of an oxygen carrying protein called..
hemoglobin
In the muscle cell, iron is part of an oxygen carrying protein called..
myoglobin.
What is iron's relationship to metabolism?
Serves as a cofactor in several enzyme reactions involved in energy metabolism. Plays a vital role in the actual release of energy from carbs, fats, and proteins.
How does the body work to retain iron?
-Tries not to lose any iron in the urine and other excretions
-Blood cell iron is recycled: when a blood cell dies, the iron is plucked out and rescued
-Body has the ability to change iron absorption in the small intestine
-Body has the ability ot store extra iron in storage proteins called ferritin and hemosiderin.
What is the result of iron deficiency? What is this called?
Low iron stores and low levels of hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia.
What are the characteristics of anemia?
blood has poor oxygen carrying capacity (person feels tired and fatigued w/ the exertion such as exercise).
Other symptoms include a smooth tongue and in some cases spooned fingernails.
what happens to bioavailability of iron when there is poor iron status?
Sites for absorption are empty. Iron absorbion or bioavailability gets a boost.
What happens to biavailability of iron when there is good iron status:
Sites for absorption are mostly full. this signifies good iron stores and iron absorption is reduced.
What are the two types of iron?
Heme and hon heme iron.
What is heme-iron?
Iron found only in meats (read meat, poultry, fish) and blood. Bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin. Has good bioavailability: about 20 - 30%.
What is non-heme iron?
Found in plants such as beans, grains, and green leafy vegetables. Bioavailability: less than 5% up to about 10%
What does vitamin C do to the bioavailability of non heme iron?
Increases the bioavailability to about 20%
What do oxalate (found in greens) and phytates (in whole grains) do to non-heme iron?
Reduce iron bioavailability by binding w/ iron in the intesnine and prveneting its absorption.
What can an extreme intake of fiber do to the bioavailability of iron?
Extreme intakes of about 50 grams or more can decrease bioavailability by binding with the iron at that meal.
What do tannins (coffee, tea, red wine) do to the biavailability of iron?
Decrease.
True or false. Women need more iron.
This is true due to regular menstruation. The RDA for pregnant women is so high that a supplement is required to meet this need.
What are heme-iron sources?
Liver, Meat, Blood
What is hemochromatosis?
When iron absorption is not controlled which leads to iron overload. Can cause serious damage to the liver because excess iron is stored there, causing damageto tissue. Over time, iron builds up elsewhere and leads to liver cancer or failure.
True or false. Acute iron poisoning is a serious problem in young children.
True.
Even if you are anemic due to poor iron intake, what should you do?
Consult a physician before you start taking iron supplements because they can hamper the absorption of other minerals such as zinc.
What is the function of zinc?
Operates as a regulatory nutrient and as an enzyme assistant cofactor in mny different enzymen controlled reactions. Majority of enzymes are are involved in cell replication.
When is zinc status important?
During periods of growth and development.
What are some primary signs of zinc deficiency?
delayed sexual development
impaired immunie function
decreased taste perception
reduced sperm count
What are the primary roles of zinc?
Cell replication
growth/sexual maturation
wound h ealing
immune functino
taste perception
reproduction
What are non heme food sources?
grains, beans, leafy greens, dried fruit.
What reduces zinc's bioavailability?
Unleavened bread. Mainly phytate.
What is the RDA for zinc?
Men: 11 mg
Women: 8 mg
What are some good sources of zince?
Oysters, fortified breakfast cereal, beef, turkey (dark), garbanzo beans
Iodine deficiency is linked to..
geographical location.
What is the function of iodine?
Incorporated into the hormones made by the thyroid gland. Located at the base of the neck.
What do the thyroid hormones do?
direct oxygen use by each and every cell in the body. More specifically:

energy use or Basal Metabolic Rate
reproductive function
growth
Where does inadequate iodien intake come from?
Eating food that were grown or raised on iodine deficient soils.
What does iodine deficiency lead to?
-low levels of the iodine containing thyroid hormones
-in an effort to boost thyroid hormone production, the thyroid gland actually grows larger in size to trap more iodine from the blood
What is an enlraged thyroid gland called?
Goiter.
What happens to people with goiter?
Become sluggish and gain weight because their BMR has been lowered.
A pregmant woman who becomes iodine deficient gives brith to an infant with..
cretenism
What is cretenism?
a permenanet defect characterized by mental retardation, deafness, blindness.
What is the RDA for iodine?
150 micrograms
What are some good soruces of iodine?
food grown closer to the ocean have great iodine content because this mineral is in sea wtaer and sea water's evaporation and eventual depositing as rain along the coast contributes to the iodine in the soil and water supply. Also, the use of iodine containing disinfectant used to clean machinery at restraunts causes it to make its way into our body.
What is the function of fluoride?
Incorporated into bone and teeth structure through the system when the mineral is taken in drinking water or in pill form.

When applied to teeth, the mineral actually interchanges with tooth minerals to become incorporated into the enamel structure.

This allows the tooth to become more resistant to decay.
What happens when you are over fluorided?
Fluorosis develops.
What is fluorisis?
Characterized by chalky or mottled appearance to the enamel. In extreme cases, teeth appear stained w/ mottled brown swirls.
What is the best source of fluoride?
Water
What is the adequate intake for flouoride?
4 milligrams daily
Unlike minerals, vitamins are different in that they are..
organic.
What is the funciton of vitamins?
Act as regulators. They DO NOT provide energy nor do they provide the body w/ structure.
What are some characteristics of water soluble vitamins?
-Water soluble vitamins are found in the water parts of the cell
-turnover is rapid (48 hours)
-When consumed in excess, body will maintain homeostasis and excret the extra in urine
-excess of water soluble vitamins is not likely to be toxic
-watersoluble vitamins function as coenzymes (facilitate coenzyme action).
-Each water soluble vitamin functions w/ one or more enzymes that llows a chemical reaction to occur.
What are the water soluble B vitamins?
Thamin (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Niacin (B3)
Pyrodoxine (b12)
Folate (folic acid)
Vitamin B12
What is vitamin C also known as?
Ascorbic acid.
Describe fat soluble viatmins
-Found in the fatty parts of the body and cells such as adipose tissue and cell membranes
-slow turnover. Months. Need is less frequent.
-excess not excreted in urine
-excess can be toxic and some fat soluble vtamins such as A can be fatal
-Fat soluble vitamins function in more general roles than the water soluble vitamins (not coenzymes).
What is RDA?
Represents the recomended intake for many essential nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals meant to meet the needs of nearly all healthy people in the population. It is not a minimum nor is it an average but is rather a safe and adequate intake that is meant to be averaged over several days.
What are some common signs of water soluble deficiency?
-skin disorders such as cracking in the corner of the mouth, granular skin, dareking and peeling of the skin.
-intestinal tract trouble since these cells are high turnover cells (smooth tongue, diarrhea)
-muscle fatigue because the enzymes needed for energy metabolism becomes less effective in the absence of their vitamin helpers (coenzymes).
Where do the B vitamins work?
Most B vitamins are coenzymes in energy metabolism.
What is the function of Thiamin
(Also referred to as B1):
Basic function is regulatory and specifically works as a coenzyme in carb. energy metabolism.
In the 1880s, where did thiamin deficciency come from?
In the 1800s, the process of refining grains became widespread. Poorer people had traditionally relied on brown rice, but began to eat polished "white" rice because more well to do people had long eaten it. However, wealthy ate a varied diet and didn't rely on rice for a majority of their calories. Since poorer people ate about 80 percent of their calories as polished rice, thiamin deficiency occured.h
What is beriberi?
Thiamin deficiency. Characterized by muscle fatigue and nervous system dysfunction. Trouble standing up and balancing. Occurs due to thiamin deficiency.
What are the requirements for thiamin?
Based on energy and carb. intake.
19+ male: 1.2 mg/day
19+ female: 1.1 mg/day
pregnancy: 1.4 mg/day
lactation: 1.4 mg/day
What are some good thiamin food sources?
Grain, meat, poultry, fish, liver, pork, legumes
What is riboflavin's function?
regulatory and specifically serves as coenzyme in carb. energy metabolism. Also known as B2.
What is riboflavin defiency called?
ariboflavonosis
What is ariboflavonosis
characterized by smooth tongue, cracking at the corners of the mouth, and general fatigue. Caused by a deficiency of riboflavin.
What are some good sources of riboflavin?
Milk, soy milk, meat, egg, dark green veggies, whole grain
What is the function of Niacin?
Regulatory. Works as a coenzyme in several reactions involved in the oxidation of carbs, fats and proteins for fuels. Also a coenzyme in the building and making of fat.
What is the result of Niacin deficiency?
pellagra
What is pelllagra?
Characterized by a dermatitis (blackening of the skin exposed to light), diarrhea, dementia, and death.
Can niacin be made from the body?
Yes.
What are some good niacin food sources?
Meat, fish, poultry, grains, cereals, beans, nuts
What is the function of vitamin b6?
Also referred to as pyrodoxine:
Regulatory. Acts as coenzyme in protein metabolism assisting the transfer of nitorgen from one amino acid to another. Also involved in the breakdown of glycogen and glucose.
What is the result of B6 deficiency?
diarrhea, skin changes, muscle fatigue. Anemia results because B6 is also needed for the making of the hemglobin protein found in red blood cells.
What is the requirement for B6?
Related to protein reguirement intake. RDA has been set at a level for typical protein intakes of about 50 to 100 grams. Increases in older people due to increased losses and turnover w/ aging combined w/ a poor intake.
What are some good sources of Vitamin B6?
Whole grains, but not refined grains.
What are the functions of Vitamin B12 and Folic acid?
Both work as regulators and specifically work in the replication of genetic material inside cells. Thus, they both play a crucial role in the growth and turnover of new cells. B12 also functions in the manufacturing of the nerve covering called the meylin sheath.
Whatis the result of B12 or folate deficiency?
Cells that turnover frequently will be quickly affected. This includes red blood cells.
-Anemia develops.
What is anemia?
Large, immature blood cells.
Why is it imperative to determine if anemia is a result of B12 or folate deficiency?
If a person is deficient in B12, the nerves may also be damaged due to problems with myelin sheat formation and result in paralysis. Taking folate can mask a B12 deficiency, which may ultimately lead to serious and permanent nerve damage.
What happens if there is a lack of folate during the first several weeks of pregancy?
may lead to serious birht defects when cells are rapidly growing in the fetus. Studies show that taking folate before becoming pregnant and during pregnancy itself helps reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Thus, grain fortification has been established because 50% of women have unplanned pregnancies and do not even know they are pregnant until a few weeks when the spinal chord has developed.
What are some good sources of folate?
citrus fruits such as oranges and orange juice, and green leafy vegetables such as spinach and asparagus.
What are some good sources of vitamin B12?
Most animal products: meats fish, poultry, dairy, B12 fortified soymilk, soy products, and some breakfast cereal.
What can the acid in the stomach do to B12?
It can damange B12.
How do you protect B12 from the acid in the stomach?
A special factor, called intrinsic factor is manufactured by the stmoach to bind with B12 and serve as protection and transport. This allows for absorption in the small intenstine. A small group of people may genetically lack the ability to make this factor and thereofre need B12 injections on a regular basis since they cannot absorb the vitamin.
What mineral is part of the B12 structure?
Cobalt.
Where is Vitamin B12 stored?
In the liver.
B12 is only found in...
In animal products. Fermented foods w/ bacteria such as miso generally are not adequate.
What does the outer layer - the bran layer or hull - of the kernel contain?
Water insoluble fiber, B vitamins and some minerals.
What is the bulk of the kernel?
Starch
What does the germ contain?
Polyunsaturated fats. Vitamin E is there to protect these fats from oxidative damange due to sunlight or air.
Why is the germ removed during processing?
To imporve the shelf life of the grain product because the polyunsaturated fat may go rancid due to its oxidation if it is left with the grain during miling.
What does grain refining do?
Strips the grain of many nutrients: fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, and minerals such as iron, zinc, and magnesium.
What is the grain enrichment program?
Grain manufacturers are required to add thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron at levels comparable to the unrefined whole grain. folate was added in 1998.
What are refined grains still lacking despite the grain enrichment program?
Enriched refined grain poroducts are not nutritionally conmparable to whole grains because several nutrients are still lacking, mainly fiber, zinc, and other minerals and several vitamins. Unrefined grains also supply phytochemicals.
What is the function of Vitamin C?
Regulatory. Works in a chemical reaction to make the protein collagen.
-Aids in iron absorption. More iron bioavailability in the presence of vit. c.
-antioxidant: protects liquid polyunsaturated fats against oxidation.
What is collagen?
The glue that holds your bones, connective tissue, lung tissue, blood vessels, and teeth together.
How much of your body is made up of collagen?
25%
What is the result of vitamin C deficiency?
Scurvy.
What is scurvy characterized by?
Painful, swollen and bleeding gums result because the collagen is not being remade
-teeth become loose and fall out
-joints become painful and sore
-bones become fragile
-small hemorrhages form under the skin when blood leaks from the weakened blood vessels
-eventually scurvy is fatal.
Is vitamin C required by all species?
No. Only humans, other primates, guinea pigs, fruit eating bats, and trout are among the few mammals that require vitamin C.
What do we lack in terms of Vitamin C?
We lack the enzyme to make Vitamin C from glucose.
What effect does smoking have on vitamin C requirements?
If you smoke, you need more vitamin C.
What can be the result of an excess intake of vitamin C?
Interferes with urine tests for diabetes and may cause gastro intesntial troulbe, reduction in iron absorption and an increased risk for the formation of kidney stones.
What are some good sources of vitamin c?
Tomato, broccoli, kiwi
What is the function of Vitamin A?
Plays a role in the vision cycle-the ability to percieve light during low light situations such as dusk and dawn or a dimly lit room.
-Most of vit. A is involved in the maintenance of epithelial cells which is the covering tissue in the body-skin, lining of the lungs, intenstines, sinus cavities, urinary tract
-Also involved in the growth of new bones which occurs primarily at the ends where remodeling of the bones allows growth in length
What are some deficiency problems with Vitamin A?
-Night blindness: inability to see low light situations
-xeropthalmia: the surface of the eye or cornea sloughs off and blindness occurs
-infection of the lungs, skin, urinary tract, and other epithelial surfaces occurs when these surfaces are no longer maintained w/ a vitamin A deficiency.
-bone growth is halted w/ vitamin A deficiency and this leads to stunting of growth in children.
What do carotenes look like?
Two vitamin A units joined together.
How can vitamin A be formed?
When you eat carotene, enzymes in the the intestinal wall break it apart and vitamin A is formed.
What caroten is best for conversion into vitamin A?
Beta carotene.
What are some good sources of vitamin A?
Liver, egg, milk, orange yellow fruit.
What are some toxicity concerns w/ vitamin A?
Can cause serious birth defects. Liver damamge occurs along with swollen and painful gums.
Is there a toxicity concern for beta-carotene?
No.
What are some derivatives of vitamin A and what are they used for?
Retin-A and Accutane: used in the treatment of acne as well as treatment of fine wrinkles. Cause the skin to slough off rapidly revealing fresh skin. Can cause severe birth defects so women should be taking birth control.
What is the function of vitamin D?
Basic function of this vitamin is regulatory and it oversees the homeostasis of calicum metabolism.
What are some specifics of Vitamin D and calcium metabolism?
Regulates calcium absorption in the intestinal tract through a protein carrier
-Directs the bones to mineralize (calcium phosphorous salt called hydroxyapatite)
-regulates blood levels of calcium by directing the maount of calicm the kidneys excrete or retain.
What happens due to Vitamin D deficiencies?
Severe bone maladies.
Rickets: soft bone maladies.
How does the body make vitamin D?
Body can make this vitamin given sufficient exposure to sunlight.
What is the building block for vitamin D?
Cholesterol.
What is rickets characterized by?
Soft bones that bow out or in
-Cartilage overgorws to compensate for lack of mineralized bone
-the head of a young child becomes enlarged becasue teh skull plates do not mineralize properly and migrate apart w/ cartilage filling in gaps.
How can you meet your vitamin D needs?
sunlight exposure: 30 min. to 2 hours.
What are some good sources of vitamin D?
Fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel. Liver and eggs also contain vitamin D.
What are the toxicity consquences of Vitamin D?
calcium levels in the blood increase and calcium is deposited in soft tissue such as organs. Overgrowth of bones in the face may occur, causeing gross malformations.
What is the function of vitamin E?
Regulatory. Acts as an antioxidant. Rests on the cell membrane to protect fats from oxidative damage.
What are the results of vitamin E deficiency?
type of anemia called hemolytic anemia.
a lifetime marginal intake of vitamin E is believed to be linked to age related ailments such as cancer, heart, and Alzheimer's diseases. With weakened cell membranes, carcinogens may be able to damage DNA more readily.
What is hemolytic anemia?
Blood cells break open because the cell membranes have been weakened.
What is the requirement for vit. E?
15 mg/day for men and women
19 mg/day during lactation.
What are some good sources of vitamin E?
Plant sources rich with polyunsaturated fats. Vegetable oils, almonds, whole grains
What are the risks associated w/ an overintake of vit. E?
Bleeding and flu like symptoms.
What is the function of vitamin K?
Regulatory:
plays a role in several steps of blood clot formation.
Involved in the mineralization of bone
What is the result of Vit. K deficiency?
Arises when a person has been taking antibiotics killing the bacteria that makes vitamin K in our instine.
What are some good sources of vitmain k?
green, leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, breakfast cereals
What do foods offer to us that supplements do not?
Phytochemicals: help protect our bodies from age related diseases.
When should you consider taking vitamin supplements?
-Calorie intake is less than 1500 calories daily
-Consume alcohol regularly and in excessive amounts
-Pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant
-Eating habits are irregular and you make poor food choices.
Why should buyers beware when buying supplements?
FDA does not strictly regulate this industry
What is a dietary supplement?
Product intended to supplement the diet that contains at least one of the following:
vitamin, mineral, herb, or other botanical, amino acid, metabolite, concentrate, extract or dietary substance.
What can supplement labels carry? What can they not carry?
"statements of nutritionial support which describe the effect of the ingredient on the body. This is a sstructure function claim.

Label cannot make statemtns of drug like effects.
How should you spot a fradulent product?
Words like:
breakthrough, magical, miracle cure, new discovery
What else should you consider when buying supplements?
The FDA does not approve the statements, but it can object to them.
-Dietary supplements are not checked for quality and qty. of active ingredient.
-some supplements may interact w/ prescriptions
-many supplements have unsafe side effects
True or false: Alcohol can be absorbed through the stomach.
True. Eating food slows down the absorption of alcohol.
What is the primary site for the metabolism or breakdown of alcohol?
Liver.
What enzyme is reconsible for breakdown of alcohol?
Alcohol dehydrogenase.
How much alcohol do most livers process?
15 grams alcohol / hour. One alcoholic drink.
What other enzymes breakdown alcohol?
Drug metabolizing enzymes. Responsible for processing drugs such as painkillers and anesthesia. Over time, they adapt and tolerate more alcohol and more drugs. Doctors, therefore, must know your alcohol intake.
What are some impacts of alcohol on liver function?
Decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose. During times without food, glucose levels will not be maintained well
-Liver's ability to produce protein decreases. Most important affected are the lipoprotein coats
-Fat accumulates in the liver and further disrupts liver function. Without the protein coat, fat and cholesterol droplets get stuck in the liver.
How does alcohol impact nutritional status?
Ingestion: Drinking calories rather than eating it. Can reduce appetite, thus you may eat less nutritious food
Absorption: Alcohol reduces or impairs the absorption of many micronutrients. Most impacted are thiamin, folate, iron, B12.
Metabolism: Alcohol can alter the way a specific nutrient is handled or metabolized
Excretion: alchol acts as diuretic. Increases urine production. Kidneys are compromised. Increased excretion of zinc, potassium, calcium, magensium, and folic acid.
What is an empty calorie food?
provides litte or nothing in the way of essential nutrients relative to the number of calories per serving.
What are nutrient dense foods?
Provide a good amount of one or more esential nutrients relative to the number of calories per serving. Fruits, vegetables.
What is initiation?
A glitch occurs during some point when DNA becomes altered or damage. Causes carcinogens.
What is promotion?
Given a right environment, the altered cell can multiply rapidly. This is promotion.
What factors increase and decrease the risk of cancer?
Fat: increases risk
Fiber: decreases risk
Antioxidants: decreases risk
Salt cured, char broiled, pickled, smoked food: increases risk
Phytochmeicals: decrease risk
Alchol: increases risk
Mutagens: increase risk
Additives and pesticides: increases risk
What should you do to decrease cancer risk?
Control weight/obesity prevention
Eat < 30% of calories fat
Eat 25 - 35 grams fiber daily
Include a variety of fruits
Moderate salt cured, smoked, char broiled foods
Consume alcholic beverages in moderation
What are the fuel sources required for exercise?
Carbs: stored in the body as glycogen in the muscle and liver in limited quanitities
Fat: stored in virtually unlimited quanitites throughout the body
Protein: Not stored in the body but is functional tissue such as muscles, organ protein or enzymes (little of your energy needs to come from protein about 5 - 10 percent).
When does your body start to use protein for energy during exercise?
If glycogen stores have been depleted and no incoming carbs are available. Can occur during endurance exercise lasting more than a few hours.
Tell me about ATP
All muscle activity is driven or powered by a high energy molecule called ATP. You have enough ATP to last a few soncds for a burst and then it must be regenerated. Even w/ this regeneration, you only have 30 seconds worth of ATP. Anaerobic respiration kicks in after that.
What happens when ATP is gone?
Uses glucose (anaerobic respiration) for fuel. This gets converted into C3 units, or lactic acid.
How long does exclusive anaerobic exercise last before the body needs to slow down and regenerate ATP aerobically?
2 minutes
When does aerobic use of both carbs and fats occur?
Exercise lasting more than two minutes. Glucose is broken down into CO2 and water and energy and fat is broken down into the same. Amount of carbs. vs. fats used depends on intensity of exercise. More intense means that more energy comes from carbs. Less intense, more fat use.
The typical athlete stores approx. how much calories of carbs as glycogen in the muscle and liver?
2000.
How can you increase endurance?
Increase the amount of carbs. Boosts the amount of glycogen, and thus, endurance.
Why do protein needs increase w/ exercise?
-small amounts of protein are needed to reapir damaged muscle proteins as a result of exercise
-small amount of protein that is used as fuel during exercise can add up for an endurance type athlete who is working out for a couple of hours or more daily.
Why is water even more essential to athletes?
Cools down the body so you don't cook yourself
Water is also the medium that makes up the blood which transports oxygen, carbs, and other nutrients to hard working muscles
-We also rely on water to transport out waste products out of cells via circulation and excretion through the lungs and urine.
What happens to the body as it loses water?
Reduction of cardiac output (volume the heart pumps) as blood volume drops
Drop in blood flow to muscles and skin surface
reduction in sweat rate
What are some signs of dehydration?
nauseous, fatigued, loss of appetite, performance decreases, flushed, light headed, muscle cramps
Who is supposed to use the Dietary Guidelines?
Everyone two years of age and older.
What should we do to consume adequate nutrients and stay within our calorie needs?
Consume a variety of nutrient dense foods and beverages while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugar, salt, and alcohol.
How do you maintain a healthy weight over time?
Balance calories from foods and beverages w/ calories expended.

Prevent gradual weight gain over time by making small decreases and beverage calories and increasing physical activity.
What are some key recommendations for physical activity?
-engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activity
-At least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity to reduce risk of chronic disease
-Engage in approx. 60 min. of moderate to vigorous intensity to help amange body weight and prevent gradual unhealth weight gain.
-To sustain weight loss in adulthood: 60 - 90 mins daily moderate intensity physical activity
-Children: engage in at least 60 mins of phsyical activity.
What are key recommendations in terms of food groups?
-Two cups of fruit and 2.5 cups of vegetables per day.
-Choose variety of fruits and vegetables
-Consume 3 or more once equivalents of whole grain products per day. At least half the grains should come from whole grains.
-consume 3 cups per day of frat free or low fat milk
What are key recommendations for fat?
-consume less tahn 10% of calories from sat. fat and less than 300 mg/ day of cholesterol. Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
-Keep total fat intake between 20 - 35% of calories w/ most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats
-Make choices that are lean, low fat, or fat free when selecting meat
-Limint intake of fats and oils high in saturated and or atrans fatty acids
What are some key recommendations for carbs?
-Choose fiber rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often
choose and prepare foods and beverages w/ little added sugars
-Reduce incidence of dental carries by practicing good oral hygien.
What are some sodium and potassium recommendations?
consume less than 2300 mg of sodium per day.
prepare foods w/ little salt