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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two drinks or less for males

one drink for females
Problems with Vegan Diet
need iron intake from plants and vitamin C to enhance absorption

quality/quantity of protein

vitamin B12 is lacking
Risk Factors of Osteoporosis
age, women, premature menapause, family history, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol use, underweight, poor dietary intake
Enzyme needed to metabolize alcohol
alochol dehydrogenase
functions of water
medium for chemical reactions, transports nutrients/wastes, temperature regulation, bile
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
-alcohol reaches fetus and deprives brain of oxygen and nutrients
-no safe level of consumption
Fetal Alcohol Effect
not physically altered, but has learning and behavioral problems
Relation between Body Weight and Water
50-70% of the body
Relation between Soft Drinks and Nutrient Deficiencies
drinking several soft drinks without drinking milk or eating milk products may result in calcium deficiency
Water Balance
-survive only a few days without water (most critical nutrient)
-excrete one pint a day to rid of toxic waste
-water intake/excretion is controlled by brain and kidneys
Enhances Iron Absorption
Vitamin C

meat, fish, poultry
Inhibits Iron Absorption
calcium, phosphorus, tannis(tea,coffee,nuts), soy protein, fiber
where calcium is found
99% in bones and teeth

makes up 40% of all minerals in the body
Vitamins/Minerals that serve as antioxidants
Vitamin C

Vitamin E
Thiamin B-1 Deficiency:
-nerve degeneration
-poor arm/leg coordination
-loss of nerve transmission
-Edema: enlarged heart; heart failure
Binge Drinking
-4 or 5+ drinks per occasion
-practiced by 50% of college students
-fatty infiltration of the liver
-not reversible
-50% death within 4 years
-drinking scars liver cells
-3 D's: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis
-deficiency of niacin
-occurs within 50-60 days
-decreased appetite and weight
-Vitamin C dificiency
-poor wound healing
-frequent infections
-bleeding gums and loose teeth
-deficiency in Thiamin (occurs where polish rice is the only staple)
-associated with alcohol abuse
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
-Vitamins A, D, E, and K
-released into lymph
-require a protein or lipid carrier for transport
-can accumulate in liver or adipose tissue
-toxicity more likely
Vitamin D
-synthesized from sun exposure
-regulates blood calcium
-regulates calcium deposition in bones
-promotes mineralization in bones
-fortified milk
Water-Soluble Vitamins
-B complex, Vitamin C
-released directly into food
-travel freely
-excess excreted in the urine
Calcium Foods
-dairy products
-calicum fortified foods
Chloride Foods
-salt consumption
Folate Foods
-grains and legumes
Iodide Foods
-iodized salt
-saltwater fish
Iron Foods
-red meat
-milk is a POOR source
Magnesium Foods
dark chocolate
Potassium Foods
fruits and vegetables
Thiamin Foods
-enriched bread
-hot dogs
-luncheon meats
Vitamin A Sources
retinoids (liver, fish oils)

carotenoids (yellow-orange fruits and vegetables)
Vitamin C Sources
-citrus fruit
-green pepper
Vitamin K Sources
green leafy vegetables
Functions of B Vitamins
most act as co enzymes that promote enzyme activity
Functions of Calcium
-mineralization of bones and teeth
-involved in muscle cotraction and blood clotting
-cofactors (messenger within the cell)
Functions of Vitamin A
-cell growth
-heart disease and cancer prevention
-growth, development, reproduction
Functions of Vitamin E
-helps in absorption of vitamin A
-role in iron metabolism
-maintenance of nervous tissue and immune function
Functions of Vitamin K
-involved in synthesis of several blood clotting factors
-required for blood coagulation
Functions of Zinc
-wound healing
-immune function
Deficiencies of Calcium
-characterized by loss of mineral mass in certain areas of the bones
Deficiencies of Flouride
-cavities can occur
-toxicity: mottling of teeth in children
Deficiencies of Folate
prevent neural tube virth defects and promote proper fetal development
Deficiencies of Iodide
-thyroid gland enlarges (goiter)
-cretinism: stunting of fetal growth and mental development as a result of low idoine during pregnancy
Deficiences of Iron
-most common form of anemia
-female atheletes, women of childbearing years most at risk
-reduction of red blood cells/oxygen capacity
Deficiencies of Thiamin

Deficiencies of Vitamin A
-night blindness
-irreversible blindness
-susceptibility to infections
-poor growth
Deficiencies of Vitamin C
Deficiencies of Vitamin E
-hemolytic anemia: caused by rupture of red blood cell membrane
-very rare
Recommendations for Salt
no more than 2000-3000 mg of sodium per day
*typical intake is 4000-7000 mg/day