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199 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose.
blood glucose levels that fall too low sognal the release of glucagon.
A meat described as "prime cut" means that it
is higher in fat than other cuts of meat.
what type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil
Monounsaturated
which of the following body organs does NOT secrete digostive enzymes
liver
a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcal which includes 30g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat
19
what nutrient makes up most of lthe endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice.
starch
by chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in highest amounts in most foods
water
The amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of about 98% of a population is termed the
Recommended Dietary Allowance
what are two major mutrients supplied by lthe fruit and vegetable group
Vitamins A and C
A diet survey of thousand sof people has shown that adequate intakes(s) from among the food groups occurred only for
meat and vegetable
which of lthe following is a characteristic of the appendix
it stores lymph cells
approximately how many kcalories are contained in a poind of body fat
3,500
which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid
Stearic acid
when consumed in excess, all of lthe following can be converted to body fat and stored EXCEPT
vitamin C
waht is the primary function of lthe rectum
Stores waste materials prior to evacuation
which of the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides
Glucose
which os the following vegetable oils is a good source of omega-3 acids
Canola
international units of enrgy are expressed in
kilojoules
What is the primary function of the rectum
stores waste materials prior to evacuation.
what are two major nutrients supplied by the fruit and vegetable group
vitamin A and C
A diet survey of thousands of people has shown that adequate intakes from among the food groups occurred on for
meat and vegetable
which of the following is a characteristic of the appendix
it stores lymph cells
approximately how many kcalories are contained in a pound of body fat
3,500
which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid
Stearic acid
when comsumed in excess, all of the following can be converted to body fat and stored EXCEPT
Vitamin C
what is the primary function of the rectum
Stores waste materials prior to evacuation
which of the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides
Glucose
which of the following vegetable oils is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids
Canola
internationa units of energy are explressed in
Kilojoules
what is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol
755
what is a normal range for blood glucose
70-110mg/dL
which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol
it is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
which of the following plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestines
Bacteria
which of the following is known to be produced by small intestinal bacteria
Vitamins
which of the following characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil
both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids
of the following foods which has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form
Coconut
an oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configuration from
cis to trans
which of the following is a feature of polyunsaturated fats
low melting point
after swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon.
which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond
Monounsaturated
what is the chemical compositon of fats
fatty acids and glycerol
which of the following foods would be placed in the "miscellaneous" category or food group plans
Jam
which of the following statements describes the glycemic effect of foods
a measure of how fast and high the food causes the blood glucose to rise
what is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins
Portal vein
into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty
Duodenum
which of the following nutrient sources yeilds more than 4 kcalories per gram
Plant fats
which of the following nutrients does NOT yield energy during its metabolism
Vitamins
a LOW risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
high-density lipoproteins
overcooking a food is LEAST likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients
Minerals
a MAJOR function of fat in the body is to
protect vital organs
gram for gram which of the following provides the most energy
fats
who much energy is required to raise the temperature of one LITER of water 1degree celcius
1 kilocalorie
which of the following is NOT a simple carbohydrate
Starches
which of the following contains the LEAST amount of fiber
white rice
the addition of liberal amounts of calcium to some commercially available orange juice products by juice processors is most properly termed nutrient
fortification
immediately after absorption what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats
Lymphatic
all the following are classified as macronutrients EXCEPT
Calcium
what is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown
50-100g
by law a serving size on beverage good labels is
8 fluid ounces
what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow
Epiglottis
Which of the following is a featur of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)
pregnancy increases the BMR
which of the following products is NOT generated via TCA cycle or electron transport chain
Ammonia
what is the range of body fat content for normal weight women
23-31%
what element is found in proteins but NOT in carbohydrates and fats
Nitrogen
which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes
Lipoprotein lipase
which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells
Metabolism
which of the following can be used to guage the amount of a person's abdominal fat
Waist circumference
all of the following are sensible guidlines for diet plans EXCEPT
eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food
after the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body
Glycogen
what is the major factor that determines metabolic rate
Amount of lean body tissue
what is the relationship between body proteins and water
proteins attract water
the major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
a common genetic variation which causes a change in amino acid sequence in the strucutre of hemoglobin leads to the disease
sickle-cell anemia
how many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins
20
an aerobic reaction is one that requires
oxygen
in the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following EXCEPT
adipocyte number
which of the following food proteins has the best assortment or essential amino acids for the human body
Egg
Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
heart disease
what is the fate of excess dietary protein
after absorpton, the extra amino acids will be repidly degraded
which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidtion of glucose
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron transport chain
what is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity
Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis
waht is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people
0.5-2lbs/week
which of the following is associated with the presence of tissue edema in kwashiorlor
Low concentration of blood protein
what is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain
Denaturation
what is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells
ATP
when energy-yielding nutrients are comsumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat
Fat, carbohydrate, and protein
if a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact soame body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
more muscle mass
Term used to classify amino acids in the dier include all of the following EXCEPT
partially essential
waht is the range of body fat content for mormal weight men
13-21%
the weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
lean body mass
when protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecules is
stored as glycogen and fat
in what region of lthe body is the storage of excess body fat associated with highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes
abdomen
the feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
Satiety
what is the primary action of the substance benzocaine, found in certain candy and gum and used as an over-the-counter weight loss aid
it reduces taste sensations
according to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. population is considered overweight
1/2
an index of a person's weight in relation to height is called
body mass index
the series of reactions involving the conversion of glucose to pruvate is known as
Glycolysis
as a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to assure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight
1200
which of the following defines the body's set point
point above which tha body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
which of the following animal-derived proteins is classified as a poor-quality protein
Gelatin
Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger
Apples
if the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action
protein synthesis will be limited
what term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into mor complex molecules
Anabolic
which of the following is NOT considered to be a source of high-quality protein in human nutrition
Corn
when two amino acids are chemically joine together, the resulting structure is called a
Dipeptide
what is the primary organ that oxidizes alcohol for fuel
Liver
the number of ATPs that can be produced from a molecule of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is generally related to the number of atom of
hydrogen
protein hydrolyzing enzymes are commonly known as
proteases
what is the fate of excess dietary protein
after absorpton, the extra amino acids will be repidly degraded
which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidtion of glucose
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron transport chain
what is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity
Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis
waht is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people
0.5-2lbs/week
which of the following is associated with the presence of tissue edema in kwashiorlor
Low concentration of blood protein
what is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain
Denaturation
what is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells
ATP
when energy-yielding nutrients are comsumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat
Fat, carbohydrate, and protein
if a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact soame body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
more muscle mass
Term used to classify amino acids in the dier include all of the following EXCEPT
partially essential
waht is the range of body fat content for mormal weight men
13-21%
the weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
lean body mass
when protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecules is
stored as glycogen and fat
in what region of lthe body is the storage of excess body fat associated with highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes
abdomen
the feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
Satiety
what is the most satiating macronutrient
Protein
During the first few days of a fast, what energy source provides about 90% of the GLUCOSE needed to fuesl the body
Protein
Some amino acids can link to each other by bridges made of
sulfur
which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition
High doses may lower blood cholesterol
what is meant by the biovailability of a vitamin in food
the amount absorved and subsequently used by the body
which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy
Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism cannot be transported to the cells
which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion
Vitamin C
what is the average lifespan of red blood cells
four months
which of the following can tha body use to synthesize vitamin D
Exposure to sunlight
which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C
Broccoli (the greener the better)
why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial on treating the common cold
it deactivates histamine
which of the following is a feature of zinc in nutrition
Pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
which of the following is a general function of vitamin C
antioxiadnt agent
which of lthe folowing features do vitamins C and E share
both function as antioxidants
what is the primary function of the B vitamins
Coenzyme participation
which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12
Intrinsic factor
at what age do adults normally befin to lose bone mass
30-40 years
Aldosterone and renin each function to promote
retention of sodium
Beriberi results from a deficiency of
thiamin
which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency ot the some nutrient
Osteomalacia and rickets
the coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin
Riboflavin
which of the following is tha mane of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response
retinal
vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions
Night blindness
which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status
Some anticancer drugs
As far as in known, vitamin A does NOT play an important roel in which of the following processes
Blood clotting
what type of foods should be controlled in individuals takin anticoagulant medicines
Green leafy vegetables
what is a free radical
A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains umpaired electrons
among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcuim-dense
Calcuim carbonate
which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria
K
which of the following would be the most appropriate food source of iodide for a person who lived inland
Iodized table salt
how does antidiuretic hormone function
it stimulates water reabsorbtion by the kidneys
research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
folate
general characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following EXCEPT
they must be consumed daily
factors that are sffective in refulating the body's water balance include all of the following EXCEPT
adrenaline
which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium
Spinach
Commercially availabel zinc-containing lozenges are advertised to be effective against
the common cold
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function
Blood clotting
waht iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream
Hemoglobin
what is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins
Kidney
when the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin
Tryptophan
which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body
Beta-carotene
which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood
Parathormone and Calcitonin
what is the term for lthe pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations are separated by a membrane
Osmotic pressure
a deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth
Riboflavin
On a per-kcalorie basis, which of lthe following foodsw is riches in vitamin B6
Vegetables
what is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption
it attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
what is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet
Salt added during cooking and at the table
which of the following is a type of neural tube defect
spina difida
what is the major extracellular cation
Sodium
which of the following body structures helps to refulate thirst
Hypothalamus
which of the following is known to require vitmin K for its synthesis
Prothrombin
waht vitamin has been taken in large amounts by women in hopes of combating the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome
vitamin B6
How much moderate intense exercise (minutes per day) is needed to help maintain a desirable body mass index
At least 60 minutes per day
What % of US adults lives a sedentary life style?
25% are completely inactive.
Muscle that increase in size in response to use is an example of
Hypertrophy
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
Weight training.
Two definitive indicators of physical fitness of older adults are strength &
Flexibility.
In weight training muscle strength can best be emphasized by what
High resistance (heavy weights) with Low Numbers (8 to 10 repetitions)
The effect of regular exercise on the heart and lungs is known as
Cardiorespiratory.
For maximum benefits of cardio endurance, episodes should be at least
at least 20 minutes.
What is VO2 MAX?
The maximum rate of oxygen consumption by an individual at sea level
What high energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy to maintain ATP
CP (Creatine Phosphate)
What is the predominate fuel used by muscle cells during low or moderate intensity activity?
ATP from FAT
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon called HITTING THE WALL what nutrients are most likely depleted?
Glucose Depletion
Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes
A diet that provides ample fluid and includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods in quantities to meet energy needs.
During physical active what hormone signals fat cells to release fatty acids?
The hormone epinephrine signals fat cell release.
What organ of pregnant women is central to exchange of nutrients and waste products with the fetus?
Placenta or Umbilical cord
What connects the umbilical cord to the placenta?
Umbilical vein and umbilical arteries
A newly fertilized egg is known as
A Zygote
What term is given to the time period for which irreversible damage to the fetus may occur?
The Critical Period.
The neuro tube forms the early parts of the what? (2 structures)
Brain & Spinal cord.
The most common form or neuro tube defect are; Spina Bifida &
Anencephaly
Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been associated with lower neuro tube defect?
Folate
What is the recommended range of weight gain during pregnancy for normal weight women?
25lb to 35lb (11.5kg to 16.0 kg)
To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy all the following activities are acceptable except
Exercise regularly (at least 3 times per week)
Warm up with 5 to 10 minutes of light activity.
Exercise for 20 to 30 minutes at your target heart rate.
Cool down with 5 to 10 minutes of slow
Activity and gentle stretching.
Drink water before, after, and during exercise.
Eat enough to support the additional needs of pregnancy plus exercise
Why is routine vitamin D supplement not recommended during pregnancy
Toxic to the fetus.