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28 Cards in this Set

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metabolism
physical & chemical changes taking place in a cell, includes all reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food
epidemiology
study of large populations of people, shows only risk factors for a specific disease
adequacy
providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, & energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight
balance
providing foods of a number of types in proportion to each other, those with one nutrient don't crowd out foods with other nutrients
Daily Values
nutrient standards printed on labels, general 2000 calorie diet
phytochemicals
nonnutrient that may have druglike or medicinal effects
nutrient density
nutrients per calorie of food
phospholipid
present in cell membranes, allow material exchange
active absorption (transport)
protein carrier, needs energy
diffusion
no carrier, doesn't need energy
facilitated diffusion
carrier, doesn't need energy
plasma
cell free fluid part of blood and lymph
hormones
chemical messengers
lymph
fluid that moves through the lymphatic system, from bloodstream to tissue and back
portal circulation
from intestinal capillaries directly to the liver
antibodies
proteins of the immune system that fight foreign substances (antigens)
antigen
a foreign substance, causes formation of antibodies
genes
code for body proteins
mitochondria
energy production (ATP)
epithelium
tissue, 1st defense of immune system, skin & digestive tract
capillary
weblike blood vessels, connect arteries to veins, transfer materials between blood and tissues
lacteal
lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats
epinephrine
major hormone that activates the stress response
norepinephrine
hormone, helps elicit the stress response
hypothalamus
portion of the brain that integrates and coordinates the endocrine and nervous system to control homeostasis
stress response
hormone mediated, effects are increased heart rate and slowed digestion
bicarbonate
secreted by the pancreas, neutralizes ph of chyme
chyme
result of the mechanical action of the stomach, liquified mass of food