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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 main types of CHO
sugars and polysaccharides
simple sugars
monosaccharides and disaccharides
monosaccharides
glucose
fructose
galactose
disaccharides
maltose
lactose
sucrose
maltose
glucose and glucose
lactose
glucose and galactose
sucrose
glucose and fructose
glucose is stored in animals as
glycogen
glucose is stored in plants as
starch
breakdown of glycogen question
TRUE
soluble fiber
pectin, lower cholesterol, improve glucose tolerance
insoluble fiber
cellulose, prevent hemmrhoids and diverticulosis
advantages of getting CHO from complex sources
all of the above
low CHO diet
all of the above
ketosis
incomplete fat breakdown
main organ of blood glucose homeostasis
pancreas
physiological effect of insulin
lower blood sugar
physiological effect of glucagon
raise blood sugar
Which are true of type 2 diabetes (NIDDM)
A and B cells resist insuline, obesity risk factor
triglycerides
primary storage form of fat
95% of fat in food in US
phospholipid functions
cell membrane component, emulsifcation
sterols
precursors for bile, hormones, vitamin D
polyunsaturated fatty acid
two double bonds
saturated fa
raises LDL
unsaturated fa
lowers LDL
monounsaturated FA source
olive oil
which help decrease LDL- blood cholesterol
monounsaturated fats
fiber
three types of lipoproteins
LDL
HDL
chylomicrons
what do LDL's do
carry lipids from the liver to the cells
what to HDL'sdo
carry lipids from the cells to the liver
what do chlyomicron's do
carry lipids from the intestines to the liver
cells obtain the fat they need by
lipoprotein lipase LPL
essential fatty acids
linoleic acid Omega 6
alphalinolenic acid Omega 3
eicosanoids are derived from
fish
Omega 3 fatty acids (benefit)
lower risk for blood clots
hydrogenation
saturated, solid, trans fats
all of the above
phospholipids act as
emulsifiers
health effects of trans fats
raise LDL, lower HDL
B and C
olestra provides no energy because
fat digesting enzymes cannot break it down
which is more efficient for fats
store dietary fat as fat
chemical element in protein
nitrogen
structure of amino acid
acid group
amine group
sidechain
when protein is denatured
loss of 3 dimensional shape
sequence (amino acids, proteins)
3 dimensional
genes
function of protein
all of the above
edema
swelling, fluid accumulation
proteins role in fluid balance
fatty liver
proteins role in transport
sickness
protein's role in immunity
limiting amino acid
aa in shortest supply
if you lack an essential amino acid for a long time...
b. protein cannot be made
c. body breaks down tissue
B and C
protein quality standard
egg white
plant source of protein
soy
negative nitrogen balance
N out > N in
person confined to bed
immobilized
positive nitrogen balance
N in > N out
infant
pregnancy
adult daily protein amount
lbs to kg (divide by 2.2)
times .8 grams
lbs/2.2 x .8g=
body protein is used for energy when
starving, low quality protein diet, low CHO diet
all of the above
kwashiorkor
severe protein deficiency
marasmus
severe energy deficiency
effects of malnutrition
NOT increased basal metabolic rate BMR
excess protein is turned into
fat
CHO digestions begins in --- and is broken down to --- for absorption
the mouth, monosaccharides
Fat; triglycerides are --- before digested
emulsified by bile
protein 1st step is --- then the amino acids reach the ---
denatured, liver
pectin
soluble fiber
glycerol
forms the backbone of triglycerides and phospholipids
linoleic acid
essential fatty acid
cellulose
insoluble fiber
polyunsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid with a double bond
hydrogenation
process of solidifying oils
peptide bonds
join together amino acids to form primary structure of protein
fructose
fruit sugar
NIDDM
form of diabetes associated with overweight (type 2)
triglyceride
primary form of fat in food
point of unsaturation
double bond in a fatty acid
glucose + fructose
sucrose
lipoprotein associated with increased risk for CVD
LDL
precursor for bile, sex hormones, vitamin D
sterols, cholesterol
lipoprotein that scavenges cholesterol in arteries and returns them to the liver
HDL
energy malnutrition
marasmus