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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does C.E. mean?
common era
What 3 things happened in 476 C.E.?
1. Rome fell
2. Church became powerful
3. Church sent out missionaries to establish churches
From what to what did Charlemagne rule?
800 - 814
How did Charlemagne keep power?
1. assigning land to people
2. Educating his people
What were the categories of Charlemagne's education and what consisted in those categories?
1. Trivium
grammar/logic/rhetoric (public speaking)

2. Quadrivium
Why was music in the mathematical category?
because back then music was perceived scientifically because of tones, pitches, etc.
Who was educated?
mostly those who were associated w/ the church
What were the 4 types of chants and where did they originate?
1. Gregorian - Rome
2. Ambrosian - Milan (Italy)
3. Gallican - modern day France
4. Mazarabic - Iberian Peninsula (includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar)
Why did Gregorian chant survive?
because Charlemagne promoted it
Who is said to have invented Gregorian chant and during what time periods?
Pope Gregory

(590 - 604)
What was so great about chanting?
It was all done by memory.
What is the Divine Office?
derived from the Latin word, officium meaning "duty" and is a series of eight services performed each day and night used mainly by nuns and monks
What was the schedule of the Divine Office?
Matins (before sunrise)
Lauds (dawn)
Prime (6 am)
Terce (9 am)
Sext (noon)
None (3 pm)
Vespers (sunset)
Compline (before bed)
What did the monks/nuns do in between services?
they did various duties (gardening, etc.)
What is the difference between ordinaries and propers?
The ordinary never changed and took place in every celebration of Mass. The propers were specific to particular Sundays or feast days.
What were the ordinaries?
Kyrie elision "Lord have mercy"
Credo "creed"
Sanctus "holy"
Agnus dei "lamb of god"
(Ite missa est)
What makes chants what they are?
1. recitation tone
2. narrow pitch range
3. text underlay
What is a recitation tone?
A recitation tone is a repeated musical pitch around which the other pitches of the chant are attracted by; its purpose was to deliver text.
What are the types of text underlay?
1. Syllabic - 1/1 note
2. Neumatic - 1/2-3 notes
3. Melismatic - 1/4+ notes
What is an Authentic mode and a Plagal mode?
An authentic mode is a medieval mode having a range from its final tone to the octave above it. (It only goes above the "finalis".)

A Plagal mode is a medieval mode having a range from the fourth below to the fifth above its final tone. (It surrounds the "finalis". The range changes.)
What are the modes for Authentic?
Dorian (D) [white keys only starting on "D"]

Phrygian (E)
Lydian (F)
Mixolydian (G)
What is the formula for a Dorian mode?
Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step
What is the formula for a Phrygian mode?
What is the formula for a Lydian mode?
What is the formula for a Mixolydian mode?
Whole Step - Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step
What is the finalis?
The finalis is the homebase, the note where it "feels right" to come back to.
What is the ambitus?
The ambitus is the range, or the distance between the highest and lowest note, of a chant.
What is a gamut?
A gamut is an array of pitches broken down into 3 hexachord forms. It's purpose is to give notes pitches and as a learning tool for teaching chants.
What are the 3 forms of hexachords?
natural, hard, soft
How do you determine a natural hexachord?
In the natural hexachord, which started on C, mi is E and fa is F.
How do you determine a hard hexachord?
In the hard hexachord, which started on G, mi is B (B{natural}) and fa is C.
How do you determine a soft hexachord?
In the soft hexachord, which started on F, mi is A, but fa cannot be B{natural}, for B{natural} is a whole tone, not a semitone, above A; fa is therefore B.
What chant that was the mid evil version of "do re mi"?
Ut queant laxis
Who invented the Guidonian hand?
Guido d'Arezzo
When a melody goes outside the hexachord it is called what?
a mutation
What do you have to do if a mutation occurs?
jump to another hexachord.... but 1 note above is okay. In that case, stay in the same hexachord.
What and What are the only 1/2 steps in a hexachord?

What is a solesmes and when did it originate?
a smooth chant related to rhythm

19th century