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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Molecular Biology (1)
The study of life using techniques that reveal its molecular make-up.
Molecular Genetics (1)
Genetics as it is viewed at the level of molecules; in particular involving the structure and sequences of the nucleic acids which carry genetic information.
Human Genome Project (1)
Government supported project with the goal of determining the complete sequence of the genetic information in humans and other species.
DNA (1)
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acid polymer of which the genes are made. The molecule that stores genetic information.
Genetically Engineered (1)
Having a purposeful change in the DNA to provide a desired outcome.
Bacteria (2)
Primative, relatively simple, single-celled organisms often used by molecular biologists.
Prokaryotes (2)
Lower organisms like bacteria with a primitive type of cell containing a single chromosome and having no nuclear membrane.
Eukaryotes (2)
Higher organisms with advanced cells which have more than one chromosome within a compartment called the nucleus.
Genus (2)
A group of closely related species.
Species (2)
A group of closely related organisms with a relatively recent common ancestor.
Antibiotics (2)
Chemical substances that kill bacteria selectively; that is, without killing the patient, too.
Penicillin (2)
The most famous antibiotic, is made by a mold called Penicillium, which grows on bread, producing a blue layer of fungas.
Virus (2)
Extremely small entity that grows only by infecting another cell.
Bacteriophage (2)
Virus that preys on bacteria.
Immunization (2)
Process of preparing the immune system for future infection by treating the patient with weak or killed versions of an infectious agent.
Gregor Mendel (3)
Discovered the basic laws of genetics by crossing pea plants.
Gene (3)
A unit of genetic information.
Allele (3)
One particular version of a gene.
Protein (3)
A polymer made from amino acids; they make up most of the structures in the cell and also do most of the work.
Enzyme (3)
A protein which carries out a chemical reaction.
Mutation (3)
An alteration in the genetic information carried by a gene.
Mutant (3)
Organism carrying a mutated gene.
Wild-type (3)
The original or "natural" version of a gene or organism.
Null Allele (3)
Mutant version of a gene which completely lacks any activity.
Phenotype (3)
The visible effect of the genotype.
Genotype (3)
The total genetic make-up of an organism.
Epistasis (3)
When a mutation in one gene masks the effect of alterations in another gene.
Chromosome (3)
Structure bearing the genes of a cell and made of a single molecule of DNA.
Haploid (3)
Having one copy of each gene.
Diploid, Triploid and Tetraploid (3)
Having two, three or four copies of each gene respectively.
Dominant Allele (3)
The allele whose properties are expressed as the phenotype.
Recessive Allele (3)
The allele whose properties are not observed because they are masked by the dominant allele.
Homozygous (3)
Having two identical alleles of the same gene.
Heterozygous (3)
Having two different alleles of the same gene.
Gametes (3)
Cells specialized for sexual reproduction and which are haploid.
Somatic Cells (3)
Cells making up the body and which are usually diploid.
Meiosis (3)
Formation of haploid gametes from diploid parent cells.
Zygote (3)
Cell formed by union of sperm and egg which develops into a new individual.
Filial Generations (3)
Successive generations of descendants from a genetic cross which are numbered F1, F2 etc. to help keep track of them.
Mendelian Ratios (3)
Whole number ratios found as a result of a genetic cross.
Sex-linked (3)
A gene is sex-linked when it is carried on one of the sex chromosomes.
Partial Dominance (3)
When a functional allele only partly masks a defective allele.
Co-dominance (3)
When two functional alleles both contribute to the observed properties.
Linkage (3)
Two genes are linked when they are on the same DNA moleule (on same chromosome).
Crossing-Over (3)
When two different strands of DNA are broken and are then joined to one another.
Recombination (3)
Mixing of genetic information from two chromosomes as a result of crossing over.
Natural Selection (26)
The evolutionary proces in which the unfit fail to reproduce.
Acquired Characteristics (26)
Properties which develop as a result of exercise or effort during your own lifetime.
Circa 10,000 BC (26)
Wolves were tamed and mankind's first animal breeding experiments eventually produced the dog.
Taxomony (25)
The science of naming and classification.
Species (25)
A group of closely related organisms with a relatively recent common ancestor.
Species (25)
A group of closely related organisms with a relatively recent common ancestor.
Genus (plural, Genera) (25)
Next level of organization up from the species; a goup of related species.