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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
data v. info
data is the raw material in the production of info
closed v. open system
closed: stands alone, nothing flows in/out to another system, better security
open: interacts w/ other systems (subsystems by def are open)
IS
informations system -- consists of all the components that work together to process data and produce info
database
a large collection of electronic records
information map
the description of data + info flow w/in an org
IT
information technology - refers to all technologies that facillitate construction and maintenance of ISs
synergy
when combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately
TPS
transaction processing system: any system that records transactions
SCM
supply chain management - system used to support activities in any stage of the business process
ERP
enterprise resource planning system- refers to the shipping aspect of business discussed in SCM system
CRM
customer relationship management system - system helps manage an organization's relationship with customers, ranging from simple to complex
8 ways to achieve a competitive advantage
1)reduce costs (increase p margin)
2)raise barriers to entrants (less competition)
3)establish high switching costs
4)create new products + services (unique, no competition at least in SR)
5)Differentiate products or services
6)Enhance products or services (so better than competition's)
7)Establish alliances (combined packages at better prices)
8)Lock in suppliers or buyers (keeps them from dealing with competitors, do this by creating a standard or perception of being the superior product)
Reengineering
eliminating a set of operations and building new ones from the ground up.
SIS
strategic info system - any IS that can help an organization achieve an LT comp advantage, so long as (1) it serves an organizational goal rather than just to provide info and (2) must engage/be useful to managers of different areas of the company, thus serving a company-wide goal
Late mover advantage
implementing superior technology since product is created later than the competition (i.e Jet Blue)
CMS
cash management system - deal specifically w/ cash, used mainly to execute cash transactoins in which fin inst's transfer large amounts of money using electronic funds transfer
EFT
electronic funds transfer - trasfers cash electronically from an account in one bank to an account in another
time to market
the time between generating an idea for a product and completing a prototype that can be mass-manufactured
CAD
computer-aided design -- computers used to test product design in 3 dimensions
CAM
computer-aided manufacturing
MRP
material requirements planning - IS that manage inventory, require a bill of materials (BOM) for raw inputs and economic order quantity (EOQ) for optimal amount of product to include.
Economic order quantity (EOQ)
the optimal quantity of a specific raw material that allows a company to minimize overstocking and save cost, without risking understocking and missing production deadlines
MRP II
Manufacturing Resource planning - combines MRP I and other manufacturing-related activities to plan the entire manufacturing process, not just inventory. i.e they can modify schedules to accomodate orders, track production in real time, and and fix quality slippage.
JIT
just-in-time manufacturing where supplier ship parts directly to assembly lines, saving the cost of warehousing raw materials, parts, and subassemblies
RFID
radio frequency identification - can be attached to a product and contain an EPC (electronic product code) that includes details about the production of the item, its expiration date, destination, etc. Info can then be read and revised by special RFID transceivers (transmitter-reciever devices)
targeted marketing
define the prospective customer as accurately as possible and then direct promotional dollars to those indivs move likely to purchase product.
Processes where IS facilitates HR management
1) Employee record management (to meet external government and internal company regulations)
2)evaluation
3)promotion and recruitment (maintain resume database, search based on certain criteria, sweeping web-search of resumes, etx)
4) training
5)compensation and banefit management
hardware (and examples of)
the physical components of a computer (output devices like printer and speakers, external storage like CD drive, Internal memory like RAM and ROM chips, CPU, and input devices like a keyboard) that together must: accept data, store data and instructions, process data, and output data and info
central processing unit (CPU)
as the most important part of a computer since it is what allows a computer to be programmed and perform tasks, it accepts instructions and data, decodes and executes them, and stores results (output) in memory for later display.
internal memory
the main memory that stores data and instructions just before + after the CPU processes them, comes in 2 forms: RAM and ROM
RAM
random access memory - the amount of it and speed at which it operates determine the power of the computer
ROM
read-only memory - has more restricted functions that RAM since what is programmed onto ROM cannot be changed over the life of the device -- best for firmware
external data
i.e disks, CDs, flash memory etc offers more permanent storage than RAM in that it exceeds the lifespan of a computer
bits and bytes
Are used to measure the amount of data that computers store + process. A bit is a binary digit, 0 or 1. 8 bits = 1 byte
supercomputers
very powerful, have RAMs w/ billions of bytess with a processing speed of billions of instructions per second, allowing for parallel processing
mainframe computers
less powerful and expensive that supercomputers. Have terabytes of storage but don't process much faster than regular PCs
midrange computers
smaller than mainframes and less powerful, but are a server for hundreds of people within organizations or on the internet
microcomputers
all personal computers
PDA
personal digital assistant, often with a stylus (pen thing) for clicking and drawing
Tablet computer
computer or attachment to computer without keyboard
technology convergence
building several technologies into a single piece of hardware
multithreading
processing more than 1 program or several parts of a program at one time.
microprocessor
is another name for the CPU chip; it carries signals that execute all processing within a computer. It is embedded with transistors (aka semiconductors) used to direct operations in a computer. The greater the # of transistors a microprocessor has, the more curcuits it has so the more powerful it is. (current ones have several hundred million processors
The 4 functions a CPU performs in a machine cycle and how the rate of cycles is measured
fetch, decode, execute, and store. Measured by frequency or "clock rate", 1cycle/second = hertz, computer frequencies measured in megahertz or gigahertz
system clock
synchronizes all tasks in CPU operations
data word
the max # of bits that the control unit can fetch from primary memory in one machine cycle
How is computer power measured?
By processing capacity (CPU clock rate in MHz or GHz) and memory capacity (the amount of info the CPU can process per cycle, determined by the size of the data word and capacity of internal communication lines, referred to as "buses")
throughput
# of bits/second that the bus can accomodate
bus
the electronic lines or traces used for communication inside the computer.
inaccurate measure of computer speed + why it shouldn't be used
MIPS: millions of instructions/second, but instructions have varying levels of capacity.
ergonomics
study of the comfort and safety of human beings in their working environment
source data input devices
copy data directly from the source without human intervention, i.e a bar-code scanner. They are used for banking, credit-card processing, and shipping. car-code scanner employs optical bar recognition (analyzes pattern of line) whereas bubble m/c forms for tests use optical mark recognition.
magnetic ink character recognition
used to record numbers (i.e on checks when deposited at a bank)
imaging
image processing, saving scanned images i.e of signatures and graphics, so they can be indexed in their electronic form, and searched for with keywords or #s when needed, dramatically reducing search time.
CRT (cathode ray tube)
a type of monitor where the inner side of the screen has a layer of tiny phosphoric dots which make up pixels and respond to electronic beams by displaying different colored light
LCD (liquid crystal display)
the most common type of flat-panel monitor
laser/inkjet/etc (nonimpact) printers v. (impact) dot-matrix printers
nonimpacts create images one whole page at a time without mechanically impacting the printer while impacts use mechanical impact, so each character printed is made up of tiny dots
2 modes of access in data storage
sequential: data organized one record after the other
direct: not organized sequentially, so you can access directly without going through other records
hard disk
a stack of several rigid aluminum platters, can be connected or disconnected from the computer, less protable than a floppy disk (though removable hard disks are available). They store much more data than an ordinary floppy disk.
flash memory and its 2 forms
a memory chip that can be rewritten and hold its content without electrical power, consume very little power and doesn't require any power to retain info even when not connected to power. 2 forms: a memory card (i.e for camera) and a USB drive ("thumb drive")
SSD: solid state disk
an alternative to magnetic disks, it actually doesn't involve a disk and works 250x faster than magnetic disk
DAS
direct access storage: disk or array of disks is directly connected to server, i.e hard disk in a PC or a tape drive attached to a single server, commands access this storage directly -good for localized file sharing which is typical for small business
NAS
network attached storage - comprises both storage media like hard disks and management software which is dedicated to accessing files over a network. It relieves the server of handling storage so the server can process other applications like e-mail and databases.
SAN
storage area network: a network fully devoted to storage and transfer of data between servers and storage devices. While NAS identifies data at the file level, SAN identifies much higher quantities of data, so it can transfer and back up much larger quantities of data at a time.
RAID
redundant array of independent disks: often included in DAS, NAS, and SAN whereby data is replicated on different disks to enhance processing speed and fault-tolerance (the ability of the system to sustain failure of a disk, b/c the same data also appears on another disk)
port
socket used to connect a computer to external devices: printers, hard disks, scanners, etc.
backward compatibility
newer hardware's compatibility with older hardware
scalability
implies that resources can be expanded or upgraded to provide increased power as demands increase -- very important when deciding what hardware to purchase