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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the normal flora of which areas of the human body?
Skin
Nose
Urogenital Tract
Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the normal flora of which areas of the human body?
Skin
Nose
Candida sp. is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Skin
Streptococcus mutans is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Mouth
Streptococcus pyogenes is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Pharynx
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Pharynx
Lactobacilli is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Intestines
Urogenital tract
Bacteriodes are a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Intestines
Enterococcus faecalis is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Intestines
Clostridium perfringens is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Intestines
Enterobacteria (E. coli) is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Intestines
Urogenital tract
Streptococcus faecalis is a part of the normal flora of which area(s) of the human body?
Urogenital tract
What are 2 factors that enhance colonization of bacteria?
Adhesions
Biofilm
What are 2 factors that resist host defenses?
Anti-phagocytic capsules
Proteases that degrade antibodies and other factors
What is a factor that enhances invasiveness?
Enzymes that break down connective tissue
What are some major sites of entry for microbial diseases?
Mouth
Resp. tract
Skin/mucous membranes
Urogenital tract
Conjunctiva
What are some microbial adaptations to assist entry of microbes?
* Survival for long periods outside of hose
* Colonization of skin
* Attachment structures
* Survival in stomach acid, proteolytic enzymes, bile
* Use of vectors
What are some ways that microbes try to avoid host defenses?
*Numerous mechanisms
*Hide within cells
*Change antigens
*Try to appear like host
How can microbes spread through body? (hint: 2 ways)
Local spread
Systemic spread
What are 2 ways microbes utilize local spread to go throughout the body?
*Degradative enzymes
*Fusion inducing proteins
What are some mechanisms microbes use to systemically spread thru the body?
*Lymphatics
*Blood
*Nerves
What stage of the infectious process is characterized by no symptoms but the organism is replicating a spreading?
Incubation period
This part of the infectious process is due to microbe and host response.
Illness
When can shedding occur?
Before, during, and after the clinical illness
What are the causes of tissue damage?
1. Microbe itself (Cell lysis due to microbe replication and microbial toxins)
2. Host inflammatory responses
Infection is completely cleared from the body

(CHOOSE ONE:Acute, Chronic, or Latent?)
Acute Infection
Constant shedding of the microbe


(CHOOSE ONE:Acute, Chronic, or Latent?)
Chronic Infection
DNA of virus hiding in cells and can come out at any time


(CHOOSE ONE:Acute, Chronic, or Latent?)
Latent Infection
What are some host factors that influence the outcome of the infection?
Age
Sex
Nutrition
Genetics
Immune Status
What are some microbial factors that influence the outcome of the infection?
Virulence factors
Anti-microbial resistance
Antigenic variants
Emerging pathogen
Infectious dose
What are the 2 groups of bacteria?
Gram positive
Gram negative
What are the 4 categories of protozoa?
Amoeba
Ciliate
Flagellate
Sporozoite
What 2 shapes do most bacteria assume?
1. Cocci (spheres)
2. Bacilli (rods)
What is meant by endogenous source of infection?
Normal flora
What are 3 exogenous sources of infection?
1. person to person
2. animal to person
3. environment to person
Number of new cases of a condition, symptom, death, or injury that arise during a specific period of time
Incidence
Number of cases in a given population at a given point or period of time
Prevalence
This type of diagnosis detects the presence of anti-pathogen antibodies in patient's serum
Serologic diagnosis
In bacteria, the extrachromosomal DNA that code for proteins that give the bacteria a selective advantage
Plasmids
70s....Prokaryote or eukaryote?
Prokaryote
What are the minimum requirements for bacterial growth?
Carbon
Nitrogen
Energy source
Water
Certain Ions (Iron)
Grow in absence of oxygen and use fermentation pathways
Anaerobes
Carries out aerobic respiration and can switch to fermentation in absence of O2
Facultative anaerobe
Requires low level of oxygen
Microaerophilic
Carries out aerobic respiration
Obligate aerobe
What is the most common form of energy for bacterial metabolism?
ATP
These processes get energy from energy-containing molecules (glucose and store it as ATP.
Catabolic processes
Energy from ATP is used in _____ activities
anabolic
Through what process is glucose converted to pyruvate?
Glycolysis
What are 3 pathways TO energy formation FROM pyruvate?
1. Fermentation
2. Aerobic respiration
3. Anaerobic respiration
This pathway of pyruvate to energy is carried out by facultative anaerobes during anaerobic conditions
Fermentation
This pathway of pyruvate to energy involves TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
Aerobic Respiration
This pathway of pyruvate to energy gives the highest yield of ATP
Aerobic Respiration
In aerobic respiration, what is the final electron acceptor?
Oxygen