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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Bacteria
- Prokaryotes
- lack a formal double membrane bound nucleus
- lack double membrane bound intracellular organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts, golgi, etc...)
- single celled/unicellular
- oldest micro organisms on earth
- ubiquitious in nature
- found in fresh and marine water, soil. and in or on other organisms likes plants and animals
Define Algae
- unicellular (single-celled) usually or colonial
- photosynthesis
- phyto- plankton component (plant-plankton)
- primary food producer in the food chain
- reproduce sexually and assexually
- found in fresh & marine waters
Define Fungi
- no photosynthesis, sedentary. absorb nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes and breaking down dead organic matter
- primary decomposers, release carbon to create carbon dioxide
- reproduces sexually and asexually
- found in fresh & marine waters
Define Protista
- relatively large, single celled
- comprise of zooplankton (animal component)
- part of the primary food producers
- ingest nutrients
- found as free living or parasits in plants, animals & insects
- reproduce sexually & asexually
- found in fresh & marine waters, and moist soil
Define Viruses
- acellular,particles
- consist of an outer coat of protein and inner core of nucleic acid
- always invasive
- described as obligate intracellular parasites
- cause disease when replicated inside a susceptible host cell
- outside of the host cell they are inert particles
Spontaneous generation theory
States that life comes fron non-living matter
Germ theory (of disease)
micro organisms can invade other micro organisms and cause disease
5 Steps to the scientific method
1. Define the problem. Break down the problem into questions
2. Consult relevant literature
3. Collect data- measurements, counts, recording inquiries
4. Analyze the data, similarities, regularities, consistancies, & correlations
5. Formulate the hypothesis. Create several to test. Test the hypothesis with experimentation
Significance of Francisco Redi
- devised experiments that disproved spontaneous theory of life
- used rotted meat in a closed & open environment
Significance of Robert Kock
- discovered causal agents of anthrax, cholera
- developed solid media (gelatin-broth) Student was Petri (dish)
- devised a series of steps/postulates to prove a causal relationship b/t organism and disease
Significance of Louis Pasteur
- immunologist, bacteriologist, chemist
- developed the rabies vaccine
- proved to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation
- developed the process of pasteurization
Significance of Barbara McClintock
-discovered and formulated the DNA can insert themselves into the genome (transposon)
Significance of Joseph Lister
- sprayed instruments and rooms with 5% carbocilic acid solution to discinfect operating room walls.
Significance of Robert Hooke
- coined the term cells (looked like a cork)
- published the "micrographia" in 1665 which listed the modifications and microscopes in use)
Significance of Paul Erlich
-developed the acid fast complex stain procedure
(ex: TB is easily stained with acid ast stain
- worked on compounds to cure syphillis, an arsenic based compound in small concentrations
Significance of Anton van Leeuwenhock
- developed the microscope
- was a cloth maker and grinded and polished lenses to 300x
- created the simple microscope used to observe microorganisms in water
Koch's 4 postulates to prove a causal relationship between organisms and disease
1. same organism or agent must be found in all cases of a particular disease
2. must recover and isolate an organism/agent in pure culture from an animal or human with disease
3. pure culture isolate must produce the disease when inoculating an experimental or human model.
4. recover an osulate in pure culture from the inoculated animal/human model
Significance of Alexander Fleming
- accidentaly created penicillin
- Scottish doctor/bacteriologist
- Working in the early 1900's when staph cultures were contaminated with penicillin mold to kill staph
Significance of stromatolites / microfossils
Evidence of these large mushroom shaped structures consisting of layers of different bacteria. They were 4-6 feet long and date back to 3.5 billion years of age
- found in warm costal waters, Australia, the Baha of Mexico, the Asia pacific rim
Geologic evidence
Data and science of today comes from this evidence that shows the age of rocks and minerals
Paleontological evidence/record
Data and science of today comes from this evidence of fossil records (plants and animal)
- goes back about 600 million years
Space exploration evidence
Data and science of today comes from this evidence- space itself and celestial bodies (comets, meteors, rock samples)
Stanley Millers experiment & the significance
Proposed the Earth's early atmosphere consisted of CH4 (methane), NH4 (ammonia), H2 (hydrogen), & H2O vapor and NO oxygen!
- states that Earth was subjected to electrical storms
- Thesis stated that after 3 days, water grew a pink color and was found in 12 naturally occuring amino acids, 4 amino acids are found in life forms
Molecular sequencing data (as it pertains to a common ancestor to all life forms
- analysis of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
- evolutionary evidence are imprinted upon molecules that make up organisms
- can tell how closely related/distantly related organisms are from one another.
- analyze amino acids (alphabet) proteins (words)
- measured by looking at transmissable mutations, changes, & tolerable mutations
Creationalism (miracles that you cannot prove or disprove)
- Believed that life was an extremely improbable event that nothing could have aused it to happen
Rationalism (cannot be scientifically investigated)
Believed that it was an improbable event but they believe it occured by chance, but they are one shot deals.
What was the common ancestor to all life forms?
Carbon 12
Define taxonomy and what it involves (classification, nomenclature, and identification)
The study of biosystems, the study of biologic diversity and organization.
- the placing of organisms into categories or groups based upon shared traits or characteristics. Involves: classification, nomenclature, and identification
Define classification
Placing into groups based on shared traits and characteristics
Define nomenclature
Labelling of organisms that are classified
Define identification
Involoves unknown/new organisms, determining which group to place in and then naming them.
The Father of taxonomy and his contribution
Carolus Linnaeus (1750's)
- created the binomial system (two part names that standarized the way to name species (Quercus ruba - red oak)
- The scientific name of an organism uses the Genus as the first name and is not capitalized.
Break down from kingdom through species

Kingdom - division (phylum) - class - order - family - tribe - genus - species
Polyphasic taxonomy and its three sources of data
1. genotypic data (DNA
2. phenotypic data (derived from protein analysis)
3. pyhylogenetic data ( info derived from evolutionary history) rRNA
3 reasons why the ribosomes are used to gather imortant information
1. they are found in all cellular life forms
2. the functionality is constant/ the same no matter what organism you're dealing with
3. they have highly variable regions that are highly constant aomong species and closely related to the members of the same species
Define a bacterial species
Strain or group of strains which include the type of strain in the group that share >70% DNA-DNA homology (similarity)
Modern cell theory (its four main points)
1. all living things are made up of cells
2. all cells arise from pre-existing cells
3. all cells are mae up of the same chemical components, ie: lipids, carbs, nucleic acids.. and they share similar metabolic pathways ie: synthesis of proteins, replication of DNA & generation of energy
4. all cells transmit their heredity through DNA
Chemical nature- biologic classes- fats, phospholipids, waxes & steroids
- insoluble in water
- non-polar molecules and uncharged molecules
- composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but have a variety of chemical configurations
- important classes of these are fats, phospholipids, waxes & steroids.
Universal solvent
water, a polar molecule
- consist of 4 units:
- used for storing energy. Cell can break down fatty acids to generate energy (ATP)
Fat molecule that hs 1 fatty acid removed and an added phosphate group and a nitrogen group.
- the fatty portion is charged
- uncharged tails are hydrophobic.
Phospholipid bi-layers
- ideal candidates for cell boundaries
- cell- semi-porous sac of chemicals floating in a sea of chemicals
3 reasons why phospholipid bi-layers maeka great biologic membrane
1. they are thin, fluid, and flexible
2. they are continuous and self sealing. they can split apart easily (fission) and can easily fuse together w/out losing continuity.
3. Very easily formed. Ex: put in H2O, shake up & they easily form bi-layers.
Molecules that are in liquid or gas medium are in motion. They move in a straight line until they collide with another molecule. During collision molecules are deflected and continue movement until they collde again. Ex: air freshener moves from a more concentrated area to a less concentrated area to go all over the room
Movement of water into and out of cells. Simple diffusion- loves from a higher to lower concentration. Water moves in response to pressure exerted by solutes in water
Facilitated passive movement/channel proteins
Carrier proteins
when recognizing molecules, it changes its shape to allow molecules to come into the cell
Active movement
Cells move substances from a lower concentration to a higher concentration (uphill exercise) needs energy in the form of ATP
? uncharged tails
inside a cell, there are fewer disolved solutes, so more water is inside than outside, it releases water
When osmotic pressure is the same. The cell does not gain or lose water
4.5-6 billion years ago
earth was too inhospitable to have begun, volcanic eruptions, electrical storms, comets, meteorites
4 billion years ago
Life could have begun
3.8 billion years ago
kerogen (carbon 12) CA (common ancestor) to all life forms have arose
3.5 billion years ago
microfossils- bacteria found in rocks in Western Australia (possibly cyanobacteria), macrofossil evidence- large fossilized mushroom shaped structures consisting of layers of bacteria (stomatolites) 4-6 feet long date back to _._? billion years of age- found in warm costal waters, Australia, the Baha of Mexico, and the Asia pacific rim ***photosynthesis evidence***
2 billion years ago
iron oxide bands are detected on Earth, oxygen levels are present and rising, cyanobacteria produced oxygen, oxygen was a pollutant
1.5 billion years ago
oxygen levels are established the way they are today, there was an explosive growth of plants and animals on earth
600 million years ago
more evidence is available