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98 Cards in this Set

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Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
Immune responses that are not detected specifically to the infectious agents or other materials. These responses are not affected by prior responses.
Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
Innate immunity that we are born with.
Inflammation
A nonspecific tissue response to injury initiated in response to invading microbes or tissue damage.
Fever
increase in internal body temperature. One of the strongest indications of infectious disease, especially those of bacterial origin.
Lymphocytes
involved in adaptive immunity. respond specifically to organisms or other foreign materials.
Antibody
Immunoglobulin protein produced by the body in response to a substance and that reacts specifically with that substance.
Antigen
Molecule that reacts specifically with an antibody or immune lymphocyte.
Skin
First line of defense
Mucous membranes
Second line of defense
Hemopoeisis
Formation of blood
Leukocytes
White blood cells
Leukocytes
All the white blood cells.
Eosinophil, Basophil, Neutrophil, Monocyte, T Lymphocyte, B Lymphocyte
Eosinophil
A Granulocyte that stains red. Involved in allergic reactions. Contains Histinase.
Basophils
A granulocyte that stains blue/purple. Involved in allergic reactions.
Granulocytes
Contain granules with histamine which increase blood flow. Basophils, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils.
Neutrophils
A granulocyte that doesn't stain well. Most abundant. Most important. Also called PMN's. Kill anything. Multi-lobed nucleus.
Mononuclear Phagocytes
One round nucleus. No granules. Not as abundant as neutrophils.
Monocytes
A mononuclear phagocyte in the blood. Also called Macrophages when in the tissue.
Granuloma
In cases of TB, monocytes go to the lungs and become a granuloma.
Natural Killer Cells
Cells that find a target, release perforin and kill the target cell.
Primary lymphoid organs
The bone marrow and thymus
Bone Marrow
Produces B lymphocytes. Create antibodies.
Thymus
Produces T lymphocytes. Responsible for cellular immune responses.
Secondary Lymphoid Organs
Adenoids, Tonsils, Spleen, Appendix, Lymph Nodes, SALT, MALT
Adenoids, tonsils, spleen, appendix and lymph nodes
Create immunity
SALT
Skin Associated Lymphoid Tissues
MALT
Mucous Associated Lymphoid Tissues
Antimicrobial Secretions
Sweat, saliva, tears, hcl, lysozyme, peroxidase, lactoferrin, normal flora.
Sweat, saliva, tears
Helpful in mounting nonspecific responses to foreign objects
HCL
Acid in stomach. Kills foreign substances.
Lysozyme
Found in tears and saliva. Kills gram (+) cocci by degrading peptidoglycan cell wall.
Peridoxidase
Found in neutropils in saliva and milk. Extremely important diagnostic test in microbiology. Catalase (+) vs. (-) organisms.
Lactoferrin
An iron-binding protein found in leukocytes, saliva, mucus, milk and other substances. Helps defend the body by depriving microorganisms of iron. Associated with gonorrhea.
Normal Flora
Microorganisms that colonize the body but don't cause disease.
Defensins
Cause holes in bacteria membrane. Bacteria leaks and dies.
Streptococcus characteristics
Catalase negative
Smallish
Gram (+)
Cocci
Staphylococcus characteristics
Catalase (+)
Larger
Gram (+)
Cocci
Likes salt
Commensalism
Relationship between two organisms in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected. Ex. Lactobacillus (changes pH)
The complement system
A series of proteins that constantly circulate in the blood and destroy bacteria by disrupting their cytoplasmic membranes.
Primary and Secondary (Memory)Response
First exposure to antigen elicits relatively low amts. of first IGM, followed by IGG in blood. Second exposure, which characterizes memory of the adaptive immune system, elicits rapid production of relatively large amts. of IGG.
Antibody Structure
Light Chain-FAB region-binds to antigen
Heavy Chain-FC Region-constant region
Five classes of immunoglobins
IGG - most
IGA
IGM - biggest
IGD
IGE - least
IGG characteristics
Most abundant in circulating blood
Attaches to neutrophil and goes after target cell. Phagocytosis. ADCC. Only one that passes through placenta.
IGM characteristics
First antibodies that we develop.
Largest in size
Newborns have alot of IGM
What antibodies do you have when you have Acute Mononucleosis?
IGM antibodies
IGA characteristics
Most abundant immunoglobin in body.
In serum and mucous.
Important in secretions (saliva, breast milk, etc.)
IGD characteristics
Not important, not clearly defined.
IGE characteristics
Produced when you have allergies.
Basophils bind to IGE and release histamine.
Immunoglobins with first and second exposure to antigens.
IGM-first
IGG-second
T Lymphocytes
Made in Thymus
Cellular mediated antibody
Two types of T Cells
Inflammatory-T helper
T suppressor-suppresses immune response
3 types of granulocytes
Basophil
Eosinophil
Neutrophil
Specific immunity
The immune response is directed only against the offending agent.
Memory Cells
Long-lived cells that respond more quickly if the antigen is encountered again.
Anamnestic Response
Secondary Response. Enhanced immune response that occurs upon second or subsequent exposure to specific antigen, caused by the rapid activation of long-lived memory cells.
Anamnestic Response Examples
Allergies such as bee stings, venom, penicillin. Response can be fatal.
Antigen
Specific foreign agents. A molecule that reacts specifically with an antibody.
Immunogen
Same as antigen.
Antibodies
Glycoprotein molecules that react specifically with the antigen that induced them. Ex. Group A strep. Normally in the blood.
Humoral Response
B-cell Antibody response.
Cellular Immune Response
T-Cell Mediated
Examples of Antigens
Fungi, Bacteria, Mycobacteria, Chemicals, Drugs, Foods.
Haptens
Substance that combines with specific antibodies but cannot incite the production of those antibodies unless it is attached to a larger carrier molecule.
What is the weight of Antigens normally?
High molecular weight.
What makes antigens specific
Epitopes
Inflammatory Response
Phagocytes enter tissue. Triggers C3 to be formed. Binds to phagocytes. Complement and phagocytes bind to an antibody.
What is an example of a low molecular weight antigen?
Penicillin. It is not antigenic by itself. It hooks up with a carrier molecule and then its antigenic.
4 signs of inflammation
swelling
redness
heat
pain
Another name for antibodies
Immunoglobins or Glycoproteins.
Opsinization
Heightens phagocytic activity. aids phagocytes in digesting bacteria.
Lysis
Complement causes lysis. Thousands of holes in the membrane.
Cytokines
Proteins made by cells that affect the behaviour of other cells.
Chemokines
A type of Cytokine important in chemotaxis of immune cells.
Interferons
Type of Cytokine. Very Antiviral.
What are 3 types of Interferons
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Alpha Interferons
WBC's. Fever production.
Beta Interferons
Fibrous connective tissue. Antiviral.
Gamma Interferons
Most important Interferon. Response mounted by lymphocytes. Activates macrophages.
Mechanism of Interferon
Virus infects cells. Virus starts making double stranded DNA. In turn signals the cell to produce interferon. In turn signals the cell to make enzymes that degrade messenger RNA.
Interleukens
Cytokines produced by leukocytes
Interleukin I
Main interleukin. Inflammatory response. Induces fever. Triggers increase of neutrophils. Triggers increase of production of macrophages.
Colony Stimulating Factors
A group of cytokines that direct the formation of the various types of blood cells from stem cells. Keep hemopoeisis going.
Tumor Necrosis Factors
A group of cytokines that play an important role in the inflammatory response and other aspects of immunity.
Two types of tumor necrosis factors
Alpha-cause neutrophils to migrate to the site of inflammation - induce fever.
Beta-Increases killing of target cells.
Phagocytosis
Thr process by which certain cells ingest particulate matter by surrounding and enveloping those materials, bring them into the cell in a membrane-bound vesicle.
Phagocytosis Stages
Attachment-phag.cells bind to microbes.
Phagosome-membrane bound vacuole.
Killed-with lysosome
Digested-breakdown
Exocytosis-contents eliminated
4 signs of inflammation
Swelling
Heat
Redness
Pain
Inflammation
A non-specific response to injury.
Swelling
Occurs when plasma leaks into tissue
Heat
Due to increase blood flow
Redness
Sign of increased blood flow and heat
Pain
Pressure from fluid and increase blood. Nerve endings send message to brain.
Fever
Controlled by brain. Macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2 types of fever
Endogenous
Exogenous
Endogenous Fever
The body produces cytokines
Exogenous Fever
A foreign bacteria produces a toxin.
Septicemia
An acute, life threatening illness caused by infectious agents or their products circulating in the bloodstream. Caused by gram(-) bacteria. They break down and produce toxins which cause death.
Changes in Iron
The body shuts down production of iron during infections such as gonorrhea.