Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/41

Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
example of specific body defense
1. If attacked by Staph. liberate an antistaph defense
2. If attacked by E. coli 0157:H7 liberate an anti E. coli 0157:H7 defense
study of specific body defenses
Immunology
immunity from conception. part of our genetics
natural immunity
immunity gained after conception
acquired immunity
immunity gained without help of medicine
naturally acquired
immunity gained with help of medicine
artificially acquired
body recieves an antigen, and makes its own antibodies in response
active immunity
preformed antibodies are given to body
passive immunity
1. acquired without meds
2. body recieves antigen (get sick, get well)
3. long lasting, may last decades ~ entire life
NAAI
1. acquired without meds
2. body recieves preformed antibodies
3. Ex) from mom transplacental, breast milk, especially colostrum
4. usually just last ~ 6 months
NAPI
1. body recieves antigen
2. ex) vaccines - pharmacologic agents that contain modified antigens
AAAI
3 types of vaccines
1. killed/ deactivated
2. attenuated/ weakened
3. toxoid
examples of killed/ deactivated vaccine
1. bacterial = Pertussis vaccine (whooping cough)
2. viral = Salk Polio vaccine
adv. & disadv. of Killed/ Deactivated vaccine
adv. - microbe can't cause disease since dead
disadv. - limited # of antigens enter the body, so less strength in immune response
examples of Attenuated/ Weakened vaccine
1. Sabin polio vaccine = oral polio vaccine (OPV)
2. Measles, mumps, rubella, influenza
Adv. and Disadv. of attenuated
adv = microbes still replicate in body, producing more intense and long lasting immune response
disadv. = sometimes can still get sick, sometimes revert to virulent form (oral polio)
examples of toxoid vaccine
Tetanus toxoid
Diptheria toxoid
adv./disadv of toxoid vaccine
adv - prevent death from poison
disadv - modified shape, not as strong as immune response
- schedule boosters
1. through help of medicine: recieve preformed antibodies
2. preformed Ig injection
AAPI
1. Grow B cells in cell/tissue
2. fused with cancer cells = hybridoma
Mononuclonal source
- B cell enlarges, starts generating unique antibody
- B cell undergoes Clonal Selection divides to form a clone of identical cells (may see lymph nodes swell as clones formed)
- B cells when secreting called Plasma cells
Primary Response
- Release IgM and put IgD in membranes
- as antigen levels decrease IgM levels drop, some of the plasma cells die others become memory B cells keep producing IgG against unique Ag
Plasma Cells
adv/disadv of AAPI
adv - fast quick aid
disadv - not enough for all risks, not long lasting
may see allergy if derived from animals
small molecules that hook to body protein and create antigen
Hapteus
ex) penicillin
Types of Ig's
IgG
IgA
IgM
IgE
IgD
consists of one antibody unit (monomer) most plentiful (80%) in bloodstream & lymph
- easily crosses capillary walls
- is antibody in memory (ability to quickly fight off return of same pathogen)
IgG
(sent by mother through fetus)
- 10-15% of circulating antibodies
- large numbers in secretions especially mucous
- also found in other secretions like milk, saliva
- is a dimer
IgA
- largest group of antibodies (pentamer)
- in circulation will find 5 together
- 5-10% of circulating antibodies
- important when first exposed to antigen
- released to help tie up antigens into big clump (agglutinate)
- is diagnostic
IgM
- tiny concentrations circulating in blood
- primarily found in cell membranes of mast cells (basophiles)
IgE
- found imbedded in WBC
- found B lymphocyte surfaces
- very low concentration in body fluids because imbedded in B lymphocyte cell wall
IgD
example of cytokine
interleukin (IL)
(tells other WBCs what to do)
(calls monocytes into area to do phagocytosis)
Interferon (INF)
(identifies that viruses have attacked local cells - triggers other cells to prepare for viral onslaught)
- release cytokines that trigger antibody production by B cells
- attract macrophages to area of antigen
Th cells (helper T cells)
can detect viral infected cells and kills them directly (since antibodies cannot reach virus inside of cell)
Tc cells (cytotoxic T cells)
trigger cessation of antibody production by B cells. makes production more efficient
Ts cells (suppressor T cells)
Nonmicrobial causes of diseases
1. Trauma
2. Developmental
3. Metabolic
4. Noncommunicable
5. Communicable
6. Contagious
example of trauma
radiation burn, hot temp. burn
example of developmental disease
blue baby
example of metabolic disease
diabetes mellitus
example of noncommunicable disease
diabetes mellitus
example of communicable disease
tuberculosis
example of contagious disease
flu