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105 Cards in this Set

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Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes contain nucleic acids?
Both
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes contain proteins?
Both
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes contain lipids?
Both
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes contain carbohydrates?
Both
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have DNA that is not enclosed within a membrane and is one circular chromosome?
Prokaryotes
What to prokaryotes and eukaryotes use the same kind of chemical reactions for?
To metabolize food, build proteins and store energy
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have DNA that is not associated with histones but with other proteins?
Prokaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes lack membrane enclosed organelles?
Prokaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have cell walls that almost always containt he complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan?
Prokaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes usually divide by binary fission?
Prokaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have DNA that is found in the cell's nucleus?
Eukaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have DNA that is associated with histones?
Eukaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have membrane enclosed organelles such as mitochondria?
Eukaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have cell walls, when present, are chemically simple?
Eukaryotes
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes usually divide by mitosis?
Eukaryotes
What does coccus mean?
Sphere/Round
What does bacillus mean?
staff/rod-shaped
What does spirilla mean?
rigid with a spiral/corkscrew shape
What does Strepto- mean?
chains of cells
What does Staphylo- mean?
Clusters of cells
What does Diplo- mean?
two cells
What does tetrad mean?
four cells
What does sarcinae mean?
Cube of 8 cells
What does vibrio mean?
Curved Rod
What does Spirochete mean?
Flexible with spiral shape
What is glycocalyx?
a gerneral term used for substances that surround cells.
What is glycocalyx composed of?
polysaccharide, polypeptide or both
What does a glycocalyx capsule do?
contributes to the degree to which a pathogen causes disease and protects from phagocytosis.
What is the function of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)?
enables a bacterium to attach to a variety of surfaces.
How do prokaryotic flagellum move?
clockwise or counterclockwise around its long axis
How do Eukaryotic flagellum move?
in a wavelike motion
What is taxis?
the movement of a bacterium toward or away from a particular stimulus.
What are axial filaments?
bundles of fibrals that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell.
What is the function of fimbriae?
enables a cell to adhere to surfaces, including that of other cells.
What is the function of pili?
to join bacterial cells in preparation for the transfer of DNA from one cell to another.
Are pili or fimbriae longer?
Pili
How man pili are there per cell?
one or two
How many fimbriae are there per cell?
A couple to hundreds
What is the rigidity of the prokaryotic cell wall?
semi-rigid
What is the function of the prokaryotic cell wall?
gives structure to and protects the cell.
What does the prokaryotic cell wall surround?
the underlying plasma membrane.
What does the prokaryotic cell membrane prevent?
Osmotic Lysis.
What does the prokaryotic cell wall contribute to?
the ability to cuase disease in some species.
What is the prokaryotic cell wall a site of action for?
some antibiotics
What is the prokaryotic cell wall in bacteria made of?
peptidoglycan.
How many layers of peptidoglycan does a gram positive cell wall have?
Many
Do gram positive cell walls have teichoic acids?
Yes
How many layers of peptidoglycan does a gram negative cell wall have?
one or a few
Do gram positive cell walls have teichoic acids?
No
Are gram positive or gram negative cells more susceptible to rupture?
gram negative
What is Peptidoglycan?
it's what the bacterial wall is composed of.
What does Peptidoglycan consist of?
a repeating disaccharide attached by polypeptides.
What is endotoxin?
part of the outer portion of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria.
When is endotoxin released?
Upon destruction of the cell.
How does alcohol affect gram positive cells during gram staining?
it dehydrates the peptidoglycan
How does alcohol affect gram negative cells during gram staining?
dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan.
How does exposure to lysozyme affect the cell?
it damages it
How to antibiotics such as penicillin affect the cell?
destroys the bacteria by interfering with the formation of the peptide cross-bridges of peptidoglycan, preventing the formation of a functional cell wall.
Where does the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane lie?
Inside the cell wall
Where is the metabolic machinery of the cell located?
On the plasma membrane
Does the plasma membrane of the cell contain peripheral proteins?
Yes
How viscous is the plasma membrane?
as viscous as olive oil.
what way do the phospholipids move in the plasma membrane?
rotate and move laterally.
What is meant meant by the term "selective permeability"?
allows passage of some molecules but not others across the plasma membrane.
What is simple diffusion?
movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (down its concentration gradient) until equilibrium is reached.
What is facilitated diffusion?
solute combines with a transport protein in the membrane, to pass from one side of the membrane to the other. The molecule is moving down its concentration gradient.
What is osmosis?
movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
What is active transport?
requires a transporter protein and ATP. The solute molecule is pumped against its concentration gradient.
What is osmotic pressure?
the pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane.
What is group translocation?
a special form of active transport found only in prokaryotes, movement of a sucstance requires a specific transport protein. The substance is chemically altered during transport to prevent it from escaping the cell.
What does isotonic mean?
a solution in which, after immersion of cell, osmotic pressure is equal across the cell's membrane.
What does hypotonic mean?
a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than an isotonic solution.
What does hypertonic mean?
a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than an isotonic solution
What is cytoplasm?
the substance inside the plasma membrane
What percentage of water does cytoplasm contain?
80%
What is the bacterial nucleoid?
the region in a bacterial cell containing the chromosome.
What is a bacterial plasmid?
small, circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome.
What shape do bacterial chromosomes have?
short, thick, rod-like bodies
What is a ribosome?
sites of protein synthesis
What #S ribosomes does eukaryotic cells have?
80S
What #S ribosomes does prokaryotic cells have?
70S
Where can membrane-bound ribosomes be found?
In the rough ER.
What are inclusions?
reserve deposits of nurtients that can be used in times of low resource availability
What is step #1 in endospore formation?
The sport septum (invagination of the plasma membrane) begins to isolate the newly replicated DNA and a small portion of cytoplasm. This results in the formation of 2 separate membrane bound structures.
What is step #2 in endospore formation?
the plasma membrane starts to surround the DNA, cytoplasm and the new membrane encircling the material isolated before, forming a double layered membrane bound structure called a forespore
What is step #3 in endospore formation?
thick peptidoglycan layers are laid down between the two membranes of the forespore.
What is step #4 in endospore formation?
a think spore coat of protein forms around the outer membrane of the forespore, which is responsible for the durability of the endospore.
What is step #5 in endospore formation?
when the endospore matures, the cell wall ruptures, killing hte cell and freezing the endospore. It is now metabolically inert.
What does the nucleus of the cell contain?
the cell's DNA
What is the endoplasic reticulum?
network of membranes extending from the nuclear membrane
What happens to the molecules when they go through the Rough ER?
they are processed and sorted and then incorporated into ogranelle membranes, inserted into the plasma membrane or secreted via exocytosis.
What happens to the molecules when they go through the Smooth ER?
Stores and releases
What are ribosomes?
site of protein synthesis
What does the golgi complex do?
modifies, sorts and packages proteins received from the rough ER.
What are lysosomes?
membrane enclosed vesicles that form from the Golgi complex and contain powerful digestive enzymes.
What do lysosomes do?
They digest worn out organelles and their own cellular contents.
What are vacuoles?
space in the cytoplasm enclosed by a membrane called a tonoplast
What do vacuoles do?
they are temporary storage for biological molecules and ions, bring food into cells, provide structural support and store metabolic wastes.
What do mitochondria do?
produce most of the cell's ATP.
Where does the aerobic phaser of cellular respiration occur?
in the mitochondria.
What are the peroxisomes used for?
they contain enzymes that use molecular oxygen to oxidize various organic substances
What do peroxisomes produce and then destroy?
H2O2
What are centrosomes?
Denise areas of cytoplasm containing the centrioles
What is the "endosymbiotic theory"?
the theory that large bacterial cells lost their cell walls and engulfed smaller bacteria.
How do they support the "endosymbiotic theory"?
mitochondria and chloroplasts resemble bacteria in size and shape, they divide on their own and contain their own DNA and have 70S ribosomes.