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95 Cards in this Set

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What is a microbe/microorganism?
Living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa and microscopic alage.
What is meant by the term pathogenic?
Disease-Producing
Are most microorganisms pathogenic?
No, only a minority.
What are the beneficial roles of microbes in the recycling of nutrients?
- Microbes are responsible for converting C, N, O, S and P into forms that can be used by plants and animals.
- Microbes return Carbon Dioxide to the air during decompotion of plants and animals. The Carbon Dioxide is then used for photosynthesis.
What is the beneficial role of microbes in organic decomposition?
Microbes produced Carbon Dioxide which is later used for photosynthesis.
What are the beneficial roles of microbes in sewage treatment?
Microbes convert organic materials into by-products such as Carbon Dioxidie, Nitrates, Phosphates, Sulfates, Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide and Methane.
What is Bioremediation?
Bioremediation is the use of microbes to remove an environmental pollutant.
What are the beneficial roles of microbes in food and beverage production?
Microbes have been used to improve the appreance, flavor and shelf life of fruits and vegetables.
What are the beneficial roles of microbes in antibiotic production?
Mold microbes prevent the growth of bacteria.
What are the beneficial roles of microbes in pesticides?
Bacteria produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive systems of the insects which allows farmers to environmentally friendly treat their crops.
What are the benefical roles of microbes in genetic engineering?
Gene therapy has come from genetic engineering which uses a harmless virus to carry the missing or new gene into certain host cells.
What is the normal microbiota?
The variety of microorganisms on and inside our bodies
Where is normal microbiota normally found?
in or on our bodies
Where should normal microbiota not be found?
outside of its habitat
Who first made visual observations of living microorganisms?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
What decade did Antoni van Leeuwenhoek make the first visual observation of living microorganisms?
1670.
Why was Antoni van Leeuwenhoek's first visual observation of living microorganisms important?
The discovery sparked interest in furthur research.
Who made the discovery of the first vaccine in western medicine?
Edward Jenner.
What decade did Edward Jenner make the discovery of the first vaccine in western medicine?
1790
Why was Edward Jenner's discovery of the first vaccine in western medicine important?
Led to the discovery of why vaccines work and are still used today.
Who made the development of the idea that handwashing is important for doctors?
Joseph Lister.
What decade did Joseph Lister make the development of the idea that handwashing is important for doctors?
1860
Why was Joseph Lister's development of the idea that handwashing is important for doctors important?
Helps prevent spread of infections from one patient to the other. This technique is still practiced today.
Who made the discovery of the process of fermentation?
Louis Pasteur
Why is Louis Pasteur's discovery of the process of fermentation important?
Gives us understanding on how things that require fermentation are created.
Who disproved the theory of spontaneous generation and experimental support for the theory of biogenesis?
Louis Pasteur
What decade did Louis Pasteur disprove the theory of spontaneous generation and experimental support for the theory of biogenesis?
1860
Why was Louis Pasteur's disproof of the theory of spontaneous generation and experiemental support for the theory of biogenesis important?
Proving the theory of biogenisis axed the theory of spontaneous generation so we can better understand the workings of microorganisms.
Who made the development of the basic ideas of aseptic technique?
Louis Pasteur
What decade did Louis Pasteur make the development of the basic ideas of aseptic technique?
1860
Why was Louis Pasteur's development of the basic ideas of aseptic technique important?
Aseptic techniques prevent contamination by unwanted organisms and are used in medical procedures today. Modern aseptic techniques are one of the first things a microbiologist learns.
Who made the development of the process of pasteurization?
Louis Pasteur
Why was Louis Pasteur's development of the process of pasteurization important?
Commonly used to kill spoilage a bactgeria in milk and some alcoholic drinks. Led to establishing the relationship between disease and microbes.
Who made the development of the idea of aseptic surgery using a chemical antiseptic (Phenol)?
Joseph Lister.
What decade did Joseph Lister make the development of the idea of aseptic surgery using a chemical antiseptic (phenol)?
1840
Why was Joseph Lister's development of the idea of aseptic surgery using a chemical antiseptic (phenol) important?
One of the earliest attempts to control infection caused by microorganisms. Proved that microorganisms cause surgical wound infections.
Who made the discovery of the etiological agent of anthrax and development of Koch's Postulates?
Robert Koch
What decade did Robert Koch make the discovery of the etiological agent of anthrax and development of Koch's Postulates?
1870
Why was Robert Koch's discovery of the etiological agent of anthrax and development of Koch's Postulates important?
Proved that bacteria cause disease.
Who made the development of the technique of streaking for isolation of solid media including agar?
Hess
Why was Hess's development of the technique of streaking for isolation of solid media inculding agar important?
We still use agar today.
What decade did Hess make the deveopment of the technique of streaking for isolation of solid media including agar?
1880
Who made the development of the protocal for indentifying the etiological agent of a disease (Koch's Postulates)?
Robert Koch
What decade did Robery Koch develop the protocal for identifying the etiological agent of a disease (Koch's Postulates)?
1870
Who made the development of chemotherapy using the first synthetic drug (salvarsan)?
Paul Ehrlich.
What decade did Paul Ehrlich make the development of chemotherapy using the first synthetic drug (salvarsan)?
1910
Why was Paul Ehrlich's development of chemotherapy using the first synthetic drug (salcarsan) important?
Was affective against Syphilis.
Who made the discovery of the first antibiotic (penicillin)?
Alexander Fleming.
What decade did Alexander Fleming discover the first antibiotic (penicillin)?
1920
Why was Alexander Fleming's discovery of the first antibiotic (Penicillin) important?
Thousands of other antibiotics have been discovered and penicillin is still used today.
Who made the development of the 3-D model of the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick.
What decade did Watson and Crick make the development of the 3-D model of the structure of DNA?
1950
Why was Watson and Crick's deveopment of the 3-D model of the structure of DNA important?
Many other findings have come from this discovery.
What is an infectious disease?
A disease in which pathogens invade a susceptible host.
What leads to the appearance of an Emerging Infectious Disease (EID)?
- evolutionary changes in existing organisms
- spread by modern transportation
- increase in human exposure to new, unusual infectious agents in areas undergoing ecological changes.
What are some Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID's)?
- West Nile encephalitis
- bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
- Ebola hemorrhagic fever
- Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
- AIDS/HIV
- inhalation anthrax
What are the major groups (domains) of microorganisms?
1 Archaea
2 Bacteria
3 Eukarya
Are Archaea Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Prokaryotic
Are Bacteria Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Prokaryotic
Are Eukaryotes Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Eukaryotic
How many chromosomes do Archaea have?
one
What shape are Achaeaic chromosomes?
Circular
Do Archaeaic chromosomes have histones and introns?
No
How many chromosomes do bacteria have?
one
What shape are bacteria chromosomes?
circular
Do bacteria chromosomes have histones and introns?
yes
How many chromosomes do Eukaryotic cells have?
One to Many
What shape are Eukaryotic cells?
Linear
Do Eukarya have histones and introns?
Yes
How many Ribosomes do Archaea have?
70S
How many Ribosomes do Bacteria have?
70S
How many Ribosomes do Eukarya have?
80S
Does Archaea's cell walls have Peptidoglycan?
yes
Does bacteria's cell walls ahve Peptidoglycan?
no
Does Eukarya's cell walls have Peptidoglycan?
No
Are organisms in the Kingdom Fungi unicellular or multicellular?
Both
Can fungi carry out photosynthesis?
No
What are Fungi cell walls composed primarily of?
Chitin.
What is Chitin?
What fungi cell walls are composed primarily of.
Do fungi reproduce sexually or asexually?
Both
How do fungi gain nutrients?
by absorbing solution of organic material from their environment.
Are algae capable of carring out photosynthesis?
yes
Do Algae reproduce sexually or asexually?
both
Are the alage of interest to microbiologist multicellular of unicellular?
unicellular
What are the cell walls of algae composed of?
cellulose
Where can you find algae?
water, soil and on plants.
Why is alagae beneficial?
Produces oxygen and carbohydrates to be used by other animals.
Are Protozoa unicellular or multicellular?
unicellular
Are Protozoa Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Eukaryotic
Is Algae Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Eukaryotic.
How do Protozoa move?
By Pseudopods (false feet), flagella or cilia.
Do Protozoa reproduce sexually or asexually?
both
What are helminths?
Parasitic flatworms and roundworms
What is a virus?
a submicroscopic parasitic, filterable agent consisting of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.
What is a prion?
an infectious agent consisting of a self-replicating protein, with no detectable nucleic acids.