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52 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes : Distinguising Characteristics
DNA not enclosed within a membrane; usually a singular circularly arranged chromosome.
DNA not associated with histones.
No membrane-enclosed organelles.
Cell walls with complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan.
Usually divide by binary fission.
Eukaryotes : Distinguishing Characteristics
DNA found in cell's nucleus, which is separated from cytoplasm.
DNA associated with chromosomal proteins called histones.
Membrane-enclosed organelles.
Cell walls are chemically simple.
Cell division involves mitosis.
Prokaryotes : Shapes (3)
spherical (coccus)
rod-shaped (bacillus)
spiral
Strepto- (desc.)
Chains
Staphylo- (desc.)
Large clusters
Growth Patterns of Cocci (5)
Diplococci (pairs)
Streptococci (chains)
Tetrads (planes of four)
Sarcinae (cubes of eight)
Staphylococci (grapelike clusters)
Sarcinae (desc.)
Division into a cube of eight cocci.
Tetrad (desc.)
Division into a plane of four cocci.
Growth Patterns of Bacillus (2)
Diplobacilli (pairs)
Streptobacilli (chains)
Coccobacillus (desc.)
Oval in shape.
Look similar to cocci, thus the name.
Spirals (ex.)
Vibrio (short curve)
Spirillum (helical; use flagella to move)
Spirochete (twists to move; no flagella)
Others (star-shaped, rectangular, flat, triangular)
Prokaryotes : External Structures (4)
Glycocalyx
Flagella
Pili
Cell wall
Glycocalyx (def./trans.)
"Sugar coat", composed of a viscous, gelatinous polymer of polysaccharides, polypeptide, or both.
Glycocalyx (function)
Attachment
Protection
Flagella (def.)
Long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria.
Flagella Types (4)
Monotrichous (single polar flagellum)
Amphitrichous (tuft of flagella at each end of cell)
Lophotrichous (two or more flagella at one or both ends of cell)
Peritrichous (dist. over entire cell)
Flagella Structure/Parts (3)
Filament (made of protein flagellin, wrapped like hollow rope)
Hook (attached to filament and rotates)
Basal body (anchors to cell wall/membrane)
Taxis (def.)
Movement toward or away from a particular stimulus, e.g. chemotaxis, phototaxis.
Axial Filaments (def.)
Bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell.
Structure similar to flagella.
Found in spirochetes.
Fimbriae and Pili (def.)
Hairlike appendages that are shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella. Fimbriae used for attachment. Pili used for transfer of DNA.
Cell Wall : Functions (3)
Protection from environmental changes
Maintenance of shape
Site of action for some antibiotics (as animals don't have them)
Cell Wall : Peptidoglycan (def.)
Consists of a repeating disaccharide attached by polypeptides.
Made up of monosaccharides N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
Cell Wall : Gram positive (def./func.)
Many layers of peptidoglycan.
Teichoic acid links layers. May regulate ion movement. Provides antigenic specificity.
Cell Wall : Gram negative (def./func.)
One or few layers of peptidoglycan.
Have outer membrane (protective, binds hosts, regulates crossing of molecules; lipopolysaccharides provide antigenic specificity and serve as endotoxin).
Cell Wall : Acid-fast (def./func.)
Very little peptidoglycan.
Mycolic acids and waxes prevent drying out and vary resistant environment, incl. stains and antibiotics.
Prokaryotes : Internal Cell Structures (6)
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleoid
Ribosomes
Inclusions
Endospores
Plasma Membrane : Structure (2)
Phospholipid bilayer
Proteins
Proteins : peripheral vs. integral
Peripheral (on outside) - can be involved in signaling, support, enzymes.
Integral (embedded in membrane) - can be involved in transport across membrane and signaling.
Fluid Mosaic Model (desc.)
Dynamic arrangement of phospholipids and proteins.
Phospholipids and protein molecules in membrane are not static but move quite freely within membrane surface.
Plasma Membrane : Transport Mechanisms (4)
Passive transport (down concentration gradient)
Active transport (up concentration gradient)
Endocytosis (eukaryotic cells)
Exocytosis (eukaryotic cells)
Passive Transport Mechanisms (3)
Simple diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Simple Diffusion (def.)
Net movement of molecules or ions from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Movement continues until molecules/ions are evenly distributed (equilibrium).
Facilitated Diffusion (def.)
Substance transported with help of transporter protein.
Osmosis (def.)
Net movement of solvent molecules (water) across a selectively permeable membrane from high to low concentration.
Active Transport (def.)
Requires use of energy (ATP) to move substances across membrane, against concentration gradient.
Cytoplasm (def.)
Substance of the cell inside the plasma membrane.
80% water; contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic ions, and many low-molecular-weight compounds.
Nucleoid (def.)
Holds DNA in bacterial chromosome.
Ribosomes (def.)
Site of protein synthesis.
Composed of protein and a type of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Some antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis on ribosomes.
Inclusions (def.)
Reserve deposits.
Can be called granules or end in "-some" (e.g. magnetosome).
Endospores (def.)
Resting/dormant cell of gram-positive bacteria, e.g. anthrax.
Dehydrated cell w/ thick walls, additional layers.
Spore formation is triggered by unfavorable conditions.
Return to vegetative state by germination.
Eukaryotic Organelles (8)
Nucleus ("control center")
Endoplasmic reticulum ("manufacturing center")
Golgi complex ("post office")
Vacuole ("storage & recycling plant")
Lysosomes ("digestive system")
Micochondria ("power house")
Chloroplasts ("solar power plant")
Peroxisomes ("detox center")
Eykaryotes : Nucleus
"Control Center"
Holds DNA in form of chromatin (DNA + protein); chromosomes are the DNA part.
Nucleolus is center for ribosome assembly.
Nuclear envelope is a double membrane; nuclear pores allow RNA to exit.
Eykaryotes : Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
"Manufacturing Center"
Consists of flattened tubes called cisternae; lumen on inside.
Rough ER has ribosomes; proteins made and translocated into lumen.
Smooth ER has no ribosomes; used for lipid and carbohydrate metabolism; detoxification.
Buds vesicles to golgi.
Eykaryotes : Golgi Complex
"Post Office"
Sorts incoming proteins and lipids.
"Tags" or modifies some for destination.
Packages them for final destination in vesicles.
Eykaryotes : Vacuole
"Storage and Recycling Plant"
Like a large vesicle.
Stores water, food, salts, pigments, and wastes.
Eykaryotes : Lysosomes
"Digestive System"
Contains hydrolytic enzymes at low pH; digests all classes of macromolecules.
Tay-Sachs Disease (cause/result)
Genetic; caused by missing digestive enzyme to digest lipids. Lipids build up and kill cell. Death occurs in children.
Eykaryotes : Mitochondria
"Powerhouse"
Produce ATP from glucose.
Structure: double membrane, cristae (folds), matrix have all enzymes.
Eykaryotes : Chloroplasts
"Solar Power Plant"
Plastids that produce and store food.
Makes glucose using chlorophyll and carotenoids.
Three membranes: thylakoid (inner most), grana, stroma.
Eykaryotes : Peroxisomes
"Detox Center"
Metabolizes small organic compounds, e.g. H2O2 and ethanol.
Endosymbiosis (theory)
Organelles evolved from prokaryotes.
Larger heterotrophic bacteria engulfs a smaller one and cannot digest it. They enter a symbiotic relationship. Larger one gets energy, smaller one gets shelter.
Evidence of Endosymbiosis
Unique DNA and proteins.
Similar size and structure to bacteria.
Symbionts (e.g. paramecium w/ algae in it).