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42 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes
Any unicellular microorganism that lacks a nucleus. Classification includes bacteria and archaea.
Eukaryotes
Any organism made up of cells containing a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. A clasification includes animals, plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.
organelles
Internal, membrane-bound strucutre found in eukaryotic cells that acts as a tiny organ to carry out one or more cell functions.
glycocalyx
Sticky external sheath of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
capsule
Glycocalyx composed or repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached ot the cell surface.
slime layer
Loose, water-soluble glycocalyx.
flagella (flagellum)
A long, whiplike structure, composed of a basal body, hook, and filament, protruding from a cell.
monotrichous
Term used to describe a cell having a single flagellum.
amphitrichous
Term used to describe a cell having flagella at both ends.
peritrichous
Term used to describe a cell having flagella covering the cell surface.
fimbriae
Sticky, nonmotile, proteinaceous extensions of some bacterial cells that function to adhere cells to one antoher and to environmental surfaces.
biofilms
A slimy, organizzed system of bacteria on an environmental surface.
pilius (pili)
A long, hollow, nonmotile tube of protein that connects two bacterial cells and mediates the transfer of DNA also called conjugation pilus.
conjugation pili
Proteinaceous, rodlike structure extednign from the sruface of a cell; mediates conjucation.
peptidoglycan
Large, interconnected polysacharide composed of chains of two alternating sugars adn crossbridges of four amino acids. Main component of bacterial cell walls.
periplasmic space
In Gram-negative cells, the space between teh cell membrane and the othe outer membrane containing peptidoglycan and periplasm.
cytoplasmic membrane
Membrane found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and composed of a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins.
phospholipid bilayer
Bippolar structure of a cytoplasmic membrane.
selectively permeable
In cell physiology, characteristic of a membrane that allows some substance to cross while preventing the crossing of others.
cytosol
The liquid portion of the cytoplasm.
nucleoid
Region of the prokaryotic cytosol containing the cell's chromosome(s).
inclusions
Deposited substance such as lipid, gas vesicle, or magnetite, stored within the cytosol of a prokaryote.
ribosomes
Nonmembranous organelle found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that is composed of protein and ribosomal RNA and functions to make proteins.
cytoskeleton
Internal network of fibers contributing to the basic shape of eukaryotic and rod-shaped prokaryotic cells.
cilia
Short, hairlike, rhythmically motile projections covering some eukaryotic cells.
centrioles
Nonmembbraneous organelles in animal cells which appear to function in the formation of flagella and cilia and in cell division.
nucleus
Spherical to ovoid membranous organelle containing a eukaryotic cell's genetic material.
nucleoid
Region of the prokaryotric cytoplasm containing the cell's chromosome(s).
chromatin
Thread-like mass of DNA and associated histone proteins that becomes visible during mitosis as chromosomes.
nuclear envelope
Double membrane composed of phospholipid bylayers surrounding a cell nucleus.
nuclear pores
Spaces in the nuclear envelope that function to control the transport of substance through it.
endoplasmic reticulum
Netlike arrangement of hollow tubules continuous with the otuer membrane of the nuclear envelope and functioning as a transport system.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Type of endopladsmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes and plays a role in lipid synthesis and transport.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Type of endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes adhering to its outer surface which produce proteins for transport throughout the cell.
golgi body
In eukaryotic cells, a series of flattened, hollow sacs surrounded by phospholipid bilayers and functioning to package large molecules for export in secretory vesicles.
vesicle
General term for membranous sac thta stores or carries a substance in a cell; in human pathology, any raised skin lesion filled with clear fluid.
vacuole
General term for membranous sac that stores or carries a substance in a cell.
lysosomes
Vesicle in animal cells that contains digestive enzymes.
peroxisomes
Vesicle found in all eukaryotic cells that degrades poisonous metabolic wastes.
mitochondria
Spherical to elongated structures found in most eukaryotic cells taht produces most of the ATP in the cell.
chloroplasts
Light-harvesting organelle found in photosynethic eukaryotes.
endosymbiotic theory
Theory proposing that eukaryotes formed from the phagocytosis of small aerobic prokaryotes by larger anaerobic prokaryotes.