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144 Cards in this Set

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aorta
largest artery in the body
arteriole
small artery
artery
largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body
atrioventricular node (AV node)
Specialized tissue at base of wall between the 2 upper heart chambers. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) thru the AV node to the Bundle of His.
atrium (atria)
Upper chamber of the heart
capillary
Smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the blood thru the thin capillary walls. Thin because they are one cell thick
carbon dioxide (CO2)
A gas released by body cells/transported via veins to the heart and then to the lungs to be expelled.
deoxygenated blood
blood that is oxygen poor because the body tissue has taken it up
diasole
relaxation phase of the heartbeat.

Remember this by di=die=when you die you are the most relaxed you will ever get! ;)
endocardium
is the inner lining of the heart
endothelium
innermost lining of the blood vessels

smooth stacked upon itself like a garden hose lining
mitral valve
valve found between the left atrium and the left ventricle also known as the bicuspid valve- 2 leaflets
murmur
abnormal heart sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves. Makes a whoosh sound.
myocardium
muscle layer of the heart. The layer that does all the work.
angiogram
radiographic image of blood vessel using contrast (because it is soft tissue)
angioplasty
surgical reconstruction of blood vessels
aort/0
aorta
aortic stenosis
narrowing of aortic valve
arter/o
artery
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
arterial anastomosis
point of joining together of arteries
arteriography
radiographic imaging of arteries using a contrast material
intima
innermost lining
ather/o
yellowish plaque; fatty substance
atheroma
collections of plaque that protrude into the lumen of an artery, weakening the muscle lining = adventicia
adventicia
muscle lining
atherectomy
surgical removal of an atheroma
same as endarterectomy
atri/o
atrium; upper heart chamber
atrial
pertaining to the atrium or near the atrium
atrioventricular
between the atria/ventricles
brachi/o
arm
cardi/o
heart
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
bradycardia
slower than 60 bpm
tachycardia
faster than 100 bpm
cholesterol/o
cholesterol (lipid)
hypercholesterolemia
increased levels of cholesterol in the blood
coron/o
heart
coronary arteries
arteries supplying the heart muscle; like a crown
cyan/o
blue
cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin indicating diminished oxygen content of the blood
myx/o
mucus
myxoma
benign tumor derived from connective tissue, with cells embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue. These tumors occur most frequently in left atrium. Dangerous because friable and regular heart beat can knock them loose.
ox/o
oxygen
hypoxia
oxygen deprivation
pericardiocentesis
surgical drainage of the pericardium
phleb/o
vein
phlebotomy
surgical incision into a vein to draw blood
sphygm/o
pulse
shygmomanometer
a BP cuff
steth/o
chest
stethoscope
instrument used to listen= auscultate
auscultate
to listen
thromb/o
clot like thrombosis
valvul/o
valve
valvuloplasty
repair of a valve surgically
mitral valvulitis
inflammation of mitral valve
valvotomy
surgical incision into a valve
vas/o
vessel
vasoconstriction
to tighten or narrow a vessel
vasodilation
to enlarge or widen a vessel
valvotomy
surgical incision into a valve
valv/o
vessel
mitral valvulitis
inflammation of the mitral valve
vascul/o
vessel
vascular
pertaining to blood vessels
ven/o
vein
venous
pertaining to veins
ventricul/o
ventricle; lower heart chamber
ventriculotomy
surgical incision into the ventricle
interventricular septum
muscular partition between the ventricles
arrhythmia
is any abnormal heart rhythm; also dysrhythmia
dysrhythmia
is any abnormal heart rhythm
atrioventricular block (Heart block)
Failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His). An implanted cardiac pacemaker corrects this).
fibrill/o
muscle twitching
automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator
(AICD)
device that is implanted into the chest to sense arrhythmias and correct them
radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA)
A nonsurgical tx used to treat arrythmias in which a catheter is inserted into a vessel and adv to the area of the heart muscle resp for the arrhythmia. Once there the tissue is burt with high frequency current thus ablating the focus of the arrythmia
cardiac arrest
the sudden unexpected stoppage of heart movement
palpitations
uncomfortable sensations in the chest associated with arrythmias. 2 cardiac causes of palpitations are:
premature ventricular contractions(PVC)
premature atrial contractions (PAC)
patent ductus arteriosus(PDA)
a small duct (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta & pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open (patent).
congestive heart failure
heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood (more blood enters the heart from the veins than leaves through the arteries).
coronary artery disease (CAD)
disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria (bacterial endocarditis)
hypertensive heart disease
high blood pressure affecting the heart
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
improper closure of the mitral valve when the heart is pumping blood
murmur
an extra heart sound heard between normal beats
bruit= abnormal sound that is heard

thrill= vibration felt on chest accompanying a murmur
bruit
abnormal sound which is heard
thrill
vibration felt on chest accompanying a murmur
pericarditis
inflammation of the membrane pericardium surrounding the heart
rheumatic heart disease
heart disease caused by rheumatic fever (strep)
aneurism
local widening (ballooning out) of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall owing to atherosclerosis
Raynaud phenomenon
short episodes of pallor and numbness in the fingers and toes due to temporary constriction of the arterioles in the skin
congenital heart disease
abnormalities at birth
coronary arteries
The blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry O2 rich blood to the heart muscle
essential hypertension
cause of hypertension is idiopathic
140/90 or higher
secondary Hypertension
always some associated lesion such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or disease of the adrenal glands that is responsible for elevated blood pressure
lipid tests
lipids = fatty substances found in foods and in the body; examples are cholesterol and triglycerides
lipoprotein electrophoresis
the process of physically separating lipoproteins from a blood sample
X-ray
x-ray
angiography
dye is injected into the blood or heart chamber and x-ray films are taken of the heart large blood vessels in chest
arteriography
dye is injected into the aorta or an artery in the groin
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
Videoequipment and a computer are used to produce x-ray pictures of blood vessels. First, an x-ray produced of area and stored in comp. Next contrast mat. injected into a vein and stored into comp. Comparison done by comp.
echocardiography (ECHO)
ultrasound waves are transmitted into the chest and echoes returning from the valves, chambers, and surfaces of the heart are electronically plotted and recorded
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
an IV radiopharmaceutical is admin foll'd by an inj. of glucse. Localz in myocardium. Uptke is prop'l to glucse metabol act of myocardial cells. Imgs showing blood flow and funct'l act of the myocardium are obtained.
technetium 99m ventriculography
Multiple gated acquisition scan(MUGA)
Radioactive test studying the motion of the left ventricular wall and measure the ventricles ability to eject blood. It is a test of functioning of the heart and cardiac output.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cardiac MRI
magnetic waves are beamed at the heart and in image is produced
electrocardiography (ECG or EKG)
process of recording the electricity flowing thru the heart and the rhythm of the heartbeat
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the innermost lining of an artery when it is thickened by fatty deposits and thromboses
extracorporeal
outside the body
heart transplantation
a donor heart is transferred to a recipient
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
aka balloon angioplasty. A balloon tipped catheter is inserted into femoral artery and threaded up the aorta into a coronary artery. Balloon is inflated opening the artery
Doppler ultrasound
an instrument focuses sound waves on a blood vessel, blood flow is measured as echoes bounce of RBCs. Velocity of blood flow increases in areas of stenosis. Used to detect vascular occlusion.
High Levels of LDL and VLDL are associated with?
atherosclerosis
Ultrasound tests
Doppler Ultrasound
Echocardiography (ECHO)
cardioversion
defibrillation very brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop a cardiac arrhythmia and allow more normal rhythm to begin
defibrillator
device which delivers an electrical shock that restores the heart's regular rhythm
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the innermost lining(=intima) of an artery; because you cannot just take the plaque.
extracorporeal circulation (ECC)
heart lung machine used as a bypass to divert blood from heart/lungs while the heart is being repaired. Blood leaves the body, enters the machine, where it is oxygenated, and then returns to a blood vessel to circulate.
hypertension
high blood pressure
Essential hypertension
Secondary hypertension
stress test
exercise tolerance test(ETT)
this determines the hearts response to physical exertion (stress) ECG and other measurements taken while pt is on treadmill. Changes in ECG during increasing workload indicate the presence or severity of ischemia
thrombolysis
to dissolve a clot
thrombolytic therapy
tPA (tissue type plasminogen activator) and streptokinase, which dissolves clots are injected into the blood of pts diagnosed with coronary thrombosis.
Holter monitoring
a compact version of an electrocardiograph is worn during a 24 hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
Nuclear Cardiology
Positron Emission Tomography(PET)
Thallium 201 Scintigraphy
Technetium 99m ventriculography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Cardiac MRI
arrythmias
1. atrioventricular block
2. flutter rapid but regular contractions of the atria or ventricles
3. fibrillation rapid random ineffectual and irregular contraction of the hear (350 bpm)
brachial artery
principle artery of upper arm
(where you hear Karotkoff sounds)
congenital heart disease
Congenital Heart Disease
1 Coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
2 Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
3 septal defects
4 tetralogy of Fallot
coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta
coronary bypass surgery (CABG)
vessel grafts are anastomosed = netted to existing coronary arteries to detour around blockages and keep the myocardium supplied with oxygenated blood.
thallium 201 scintigraphy
is a radioactive isotope that is taken up by myocardial tissue. After IV injection, the concentration of thallium 201 is measured. Infarcted or scarred myocardium does not extract any isotope, showing up as cold spots
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
Specialized muscle fibers in wall between the ventricles that carry electrical impulses to ventricles
cardiac catheterization
thin flexible tube is introduced into a vein or artery and is guided into the heart for purposes of detecting pressures and patterns of blood flow. Contrast solution can also be used
cardiomyopathy
toxic or infectious agents may be the cause, but often the etiology is unknown (idiopathic) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an increase in heart muscle wt, esp along the septum which causes narrowing of the aortic valve.
pericardi/o
pericardium
peripheral vascular disease
blockage of blood vessels arteries in the lower extremities due to atherosclerosis
septal defects
small holes in the septa between atria (atrial septal defects(ASDs) or ventricles (ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
tetralogy of Fallot
A congenital malformation of the heart involving four (tetra) distinct defects:
1. Pulmonary artery stenosis
2. Ventricular septal Defect
3. shift of the aorta to the right
4. hypertrophy of the right ventricle
varicose veins
abnormally swollen and twisted veins usually occurring in the legs
2 cardiac causes of palpitations are?
premature ventricular contractions(PVC)
premature atrial contractions (PAC)
fribillation
rapid random ineffectual and irregular contraction of the hear (350 bpm)
high levels of HDL do this...?
High levels of HDL which remove cholesterol and transport it to the liver, protect adults from the development of atherosclerosis. Factors increasing, estrogen, exercise, and alcohol (in moderation)
Serum enzyme tests
during a MI enzymes are released into the blood from the dying heart muscle. These are measured and are useful as evidence of an infarction
creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
atherosclerosis
the major form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of yellow plaque (cholesterol and lipids) are found within the lining of the artery.
Explain conduction of the heart
The heart is an electrical pump

1 Sinoatrial Node (SA node) "pacemaker"
2 Atrioventricular Node (AV node)
3 Bundle of His
4 Bundle branches L and R
5 Purkinje fibers