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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
epenthesis
segement is inserted
phonology
the organization of sounds in a particular language. How sounds affect each other in words, which words can happen in which language
plumonic egressive
in english: exhaling (lung) (blowing out)
metathesis
order of segments is reversed
-childish pronunciation
phonetics
physical properties of speech
suprasegmental features
length, pitch (intonation & tone), stress
shared by all communication systems
mode of comm, semanticity, pragmatic function
design features unique to human language
displacement, productivity
minimal pairs
one phonetic difference that makes a difference in meaning
presence = separate phonemes
contrastive distribution
sounds: can occur in the same environment i.e. minimal pairs
-cannot predict where they will occur
-separate phonemes
complementary distribution
sounds appeear in diff. sets of environments
-can predict where sounds will occur
-allophones of the same phoneme
natural class
- all sounds that share some phonetic feature to the exclusion of all of the other sounds in a lang.
phonemes
-a minimal unit of sound that serves to differentiate meanings of words
fortition
sounds made stronger
-voiceless -> voiced
liquid -> stop
single -> double consonant
non aspirated -> aspirated
assimilation
- neighboring segments become more similar to one another
- more efficient, elimates excessive movement

opp. dissimilation: tongue twisters, fricatives: fifths, sixths
complementary distribution
sounds appeear in diff. sets of environments
-can predict where sounds will occur
-allophones of the same phoneme
deletion
a segment is removed from certain phonetic contexts
lenition
sounds made weaker
full stop -> flap
complementary distribution
sounds appeear in diff. sets of environments
-can predict where sounds will occur
-allophones of the same phoneme
natural class
- all sounds that share some phonetic feature to the exclusion of all of the other sounds in a lang.
natural class
- all sounds that share some phonetic feature to the exclusion of all of the other sounds in a lang.
sonorants
produced with relatively open passage
-nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
phonemes
-a minimal unit of sound that serves to differentiate meanings of words
fortition
sounds made stronger
-voiceless -> voiced
liquid -> stop
single -> double consonant
non aspirated -> aspirated
pitch
change pitch by controlling:
-tension in vocal folds
-amount of air that passes through the glottis

1. intonation
2. tone
phonemes
-a minimal unit of sound that serves to differentiate meanings of words
assimilation
- neighboring segments become more similar to one another
- more efficient, elimates excessive movement

opp. dissimilation: tongue twisters, fricatives: fifths, sixths
obstruents
produced with an obstruction of the air flow
-stops, fricatives, affricates
fortition
sounds made stronger
-voiceless -> voiced
liquid -> stop
single -> double consonant
non aspirated -> aspirated
deletion
a segment is removed from certain phonetic contexts
complementary distribution
sounds appeear in diff. sets of environments
-can predict where sounds will occur
-allophones of the same phoneme
assimilation
- neighboring segments become more similar to one another
- more efficient, elimates excessive movement

opp. dissimilation: tongue twisters, fricatives: fifths, sixths
deletion
a segment is removed from certain phonetic contexts
natural class
- all sounds that share some phonetic feature to the exclusion of all of the other sounds in a lang.
lenition
sounds made weaker
full stop -> flap
sonorants
produced with relatively open passage
-nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
lenition
sounds made weaker
full stop -> flap
phonemes
-a minimal unit of sound that serves to differentiate meanings of words
fortition
sounds made stronger
-voiceless -> voiced
liquid -> stop
single -> double consonant
non aspirated -> aspirated
pitch
change pitch by controlling:
-tension in vocal folds
-amount of air that passes through the glottis

1. intonation
2. tone
sonorants
produced with relatively open passage
-nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
pitch
change pitch by controlling:
-tension in vocal folds
-amount of air that passes through the glottis

1. intonation
2. tone
assimilation
- neighboring segments become more similar to one another
- more efficient, elimates excessive movement

opp. dissimilation: tongue twisters, fricatives: fifths, sixths
obstruents
produced with an obstruction of the air flow
-stops, fricatives, affricates
complementary distribution
sounds appeear in diff. sets of environments
-can predict where sounds will occur
-allophones of the same phoneme
complementary distribution
sounds appeear in diff. sets of environments
-can predict where sounds will occur
-allophones of the same phoneme
obstruents
produced with an obstruction of the air flow
-stops, fricatives, affricates
natural class
- all sounds that share some phonetic feature to the exclusion of all of the other sounds in a lang.
deletion
a segment is removed from certain phonetic contexts
natural class
- all sounds that share some phonetic feature to the exclusion of all of the other sounds in a lang.
phonemes
-a minimal unit of sound that serves to differentiate meanings of words
phonemes
-a minimal unit of sound that serves to differentiate meanings of words
lenition
sounds made weaker
full stop -> flap
fortition
sounds made stronger
-voiceless -> voiced
liquid -> stop
single -> double consonant
non aspirated -> aspirated
fortition
sounds made stronger
-voiceless -> voiced
liquid -> stop
single -> double consonant
non aspirated -> aspirated
sonorants
produced with relatively open passage
-nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
assimilation
- neighboring segments become more similar to one another
- more efficient, elimates excessive movement

opp. dissimilation: tongue twisters, fricatives: fifths, sixths
assimilation
- neighboring segments become more similar to one another
- more efficient, elimates excessive movement

opp. dissimilation: tongue twisters, fricatives: fifths, sixths
pitch
change pitch by controlling:
-tension in vocal folds
-amount of air that passes through the glottis

1. intonation
2. tone
deletion
a segment is removed from certain phonetic contexts
deletion
a segment is removed from certain phonetic contexts
obstruents
produced with an obstruction of the air flow
-stops, fricatives, affricates
lenition
sounds made weaker
full stop -> flap
lenition
sounds made weaker
full stop -> flap
sonorants
produced with relatively open passage
-nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
sonorants
produced with relatively open passage
-nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
pitch
change pitch by controlling:
-tension in vocal folds
-amount of air that passes through the glottis

1. intonation
2. tone
pitch
change pitch by controlling:
-tension in vocal folds
-amount of air that passes through the glottis

1. intonation
2. tone
obstruents
produced with an obstruction of the air flow
-stops, fricatives, affricates
obstruents
produced with an obstruction of the air flow
-stops, fricatives, affricates
stress
higher pitch and louder voice
vowels
tenseness, lip rounding, tongue height & advancement
-produced without major constriction of the vocal tract
-can stand alone
-carry pitch and loudness
-serve as the nucleus of hte syllable
tone
differences in pitch within a word that make a difference in meaning
intonation
pitch movements across an utterance, does not affect word meaning
fundamental diff. hypothesis
-L2 learning requires conscious attention, memorization, intense study and practice
-L2 learners normally do not achieve native-like competence
-errors in the L2 may fossilize (when an incorrect phrase that gets stuck in the learner’s grammer)
-adults show huge range of variability in L2 learning ability
-errors are different from children’s L1 errors
Interlanguage
rules, grammer, even if wrong, when learning a language that allow learners to produce
L2 learners go through developmental stages
at each developmental stage, rules govern production
Transfer
L1 interferes with learning an L2
learners rely on L1 grammar to build a new grammar for the L2
transfer can be positive or negative
-false cognates (“false friends”)
Influencing Factors
phonology seems to be the most sensitive to age
adults’ general capacity for rule creation may get in the way of L2 acquisition
motivation
instrumental:
job, language requirement

integrative:
learn about culture, fit in
Language Acquisition
metal capacities of computation coded in dna
-mistake to even use the word “learning” w lang acqu
-how much learned/built in
-born with general lang principles in all human lang, have to learn specifics of english/french/etc
Stages of Development
Phonology
Lexicon
Morphology
Syntax
Phonological Development
children are born with special perceptive ability for speech:
newborns differentiate between speech and non-speech sounds
show preference for parental language within couple of days
recognize mother’s voice within couple of weeks
1 month: can distinguish between sounds in ambient language and other languages
10-12 months: lose ability to distinguish between non-native sounds
6 months: babbling
12 months: one-word
vowels before consonants (easier)
stops before other consonants
labials  alveolars  velars  alveopalatals  interdentals (also follows the infrequency of sounds in the world’s lang)
phonemic contrasts show up in word-initial position
Lexical Development
first words:
names
other nouns to label things
action verbs
adjectives with vivid meanings
how do children know what a new word refers to?
The Whole Object Assumption: whole thing, nont part
The Type Assumption: will see others, not one particular animal
The Basic Level Assumption: things alike are called by same name, not
Language Acquisition
metal capacities of computation coded in dna
-mistake to even use the word “learning” w lang acqu
-how much learned/built in
-born with general lang principles in all human lang, have to learn specifics of english/french/etc
Stages of Development
Phonology
Lexicon
Morphology
Syntax
Phonological Development
children are born with special perceptive ability for speech:
newborns differentiate between speech and non-speech sounds
show preference for parental language within couple of days
recognize mother’s voice within couple of weeks
1 month: can distinguish between sounds in ambient language and other languages
10-12 months: lose ability to distinguish between non-native sounds
6 months: babbling
12 months: one-word
vowels before consonants (easier)
stops before other consonants
labials  alveolars  velars  alveopalatals  interdentals (also follows the infrequency of sounds in the world’s lang)
phonemic contrasts show up in word-initial position
Lexical Development
first words:
names
other nouns to label things
action verbs
adjectives with vivid meanings
how do children know what a new word refers to?
The Whole Object Assumption: whole thing, nont part
The Type Assumption: will see others, not one particular animal
The Basic Level Assumption: things alike are called by same name, not
Overextension:
dog  used for all stuffed animals
= “furry-like animal thing”
Underextension
dog  used to refer only to a particular animal
= “his/her uncle’s dog”
one word stage
usually limited to labels
rich intonation

juice
up
doll
two word stage
"mini-sentences"
lacking function words and inflectional morphology
Mommy shoe
Hit ball
Doggie bark
telegraphic stage
longer and more complex grammatical structures
at first sentences do not have bound morphemes or function words
phrase structure develops
I good boy.
Daddy eat banana.
Theory of nativism
humans are genetically predisposed to learn language: Universal Grammar
children are born with principles; they acquire specific parameters
the critical period
possibility that humans must acquire language during a particular time frame
evidence from individuals who do not experience language early in their lives
sociolinguistics
the study of language variation
Dialects:
2 varieties mutually intelligible

morpho-syntactic variation
Language:
2 varieties not mutually intelligible
Accent:
refers to how people sound
standard english
overt prestige, power authority, not inherently better than 'nonstandard'
How do dialects differ?
Lexicon: hella vs. wicked, soda vs. pop,
morphology
syntax
phonology
phonetics
language varies:
in phonetics and phonology
in morphology and syntax
in the lexicon
chain shifts:
one vowel changes, causes domino effect
Phonological Variation
change in number of phonemes
mergers
splits
Social Variation
language variation can also tell us about social distinctions within communities
social class
gender
ethnicity
ethnolects
rule governed and systematic
Semantics
the study of meaning in language
Reference
Meaning that communicates information about the world
Sense
element of meaning separate from reference
more enduring
Prototypes:
works better with nouns than with other lexical or functional categories, abstract nouns
Metaphor
demonstrate the interconnectedness of ideas
have a prominent place in our conceptual system
Berkley prof: women, fire, and dangerous things
Idioms:
non compositional: can’t look at the individual components of the idiom in order to learn the meaning. Can’t translate idioms.

meaning cannot be derived from the words
can’t have the syntactic operations of normal sentences done to them
Synonyms:
never any perfect synonyms, words that have the same meaning
Antonyms
wods that have opposite meanings
gradable antonyms:
big in-between range
hot/cold
good/bad
big/small
complementary antonyms:
no in-between range
dead/alive
visible/invisible
present/absent
reverses
directional
up/down
inside/outside
inflate/deflate
converses
presence of one means that you have to have the other
buy/sell
teacher/student
nominator/nominee
Polysemy:
many meanings
-words that have more than one related meaning
leech
coast
diamond
Homophony:
words that sound the same but have different, unrelated meanings
light
bank
piece / peace

Homophones: same sound
Polysemy:
words that have more than one related meaning
leech
coast
diamond

many meanings
Hyponyms
(specific category)
Hypernyms
(large category)
Semantic Change
the meaning of words often can change over time

sometimes change in one word triggers a 'chain reaction':
Meat (was food) – flesh (was meat) – food (was animal fodder)
Extension
set of referents for a word increases
bird
nuke
salary
Reduction
set of referents for a word decreases
skyline
Girl: used to refer to all female and male children.
Elevation
words take on positive meaning
Knight:
Squire: now large land owner, used to be attendant to knight
Pretty:
Degradation
words take on negative meaning
Wench: used to just mean young woman
Silly:
Mistress:
Spinster: used to mean old woman who spun thread
hussy : used to mean housemistress
Cerebral Hemispheres
anatomically separate (almost)
contralateral control
considerable functional distinctness
Right:
visual, spatial, emotional, face detection,
Left:
analytical, logical, reasoning, desire to explain, interpret, language,
Broca’s Aphasia
(=“nonfluent” aphasia)
labored speech
difficulty finding words (anomia)
word repetitions
reduced intonation
lack of function words, inflectional morphology
phonemic errors
Wernicke’s Aphasia
(=“fluent” aphasia)
easy production of fluent, connected speech
appropriate intonation
presence of function words
usually correct word order
difficulty with language comprehension
neologism
animal communication
lacks arbitrariness
is not deliberate or conscious
is stimulus-bound
lacks duality
Lacks displacement, bound by what is in their immediate environment, ex honeybees, but limited: timeframe, unable to communicate past, unusual height, great distance
Bees
forager bees can communicate information about a food source to others in the hive
distance
direction
quality
Birds
In the wild, birds have calls and songs
Dialects: have to have interaction with other animals of the same species
This interaction has to be with in the: critical period, to acquire language

“talking” parrots:
imitation, no meaning
no duality
do not spontaneously produce new combinations
no morphological analysis or analogy: if they know cats and dogs and parrot, don’t know parrots
no creativity or productivity
Nonhuman Primates
communication is symptomatic and genetically determined

unable to learn speech sounds

not spontaneous

often repetition of trainer
cueing from experimenters:
-Hans the clever horse effect always bubbling under the surface

over-interpretation

syntax
-Give orange me give eat orange me eat orange give me eat orange orange give me you