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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lexical categories
noun, verb, adj, prep, adv
nonlexical categories
det, deg (adj), aux (verb), conj
NP
(Det) N (PP)
VP
(adv) V (NP)
AP
(Deg) A (PP)
PP
(Deg) P (NP)
IP
NP I VP
substitution test
replacement using a pro-form (they, it, there, do so) to test correct grouping
movement test
some phrases can be moved as a single unit to another part of the sentence
coordination test
words form a constituent if they can be joined using a conjunction
Bar Levels (NP)
NP > (Det) N'
N' > (AdjP) N' or N' (PP)
N' > N (PP)
Bar Levels (VP)
VP > (AdvP) V'
V' > V' ({AdvP/PP})
V' > V (NP)
Bar Levels (Adj)
AdjP > (Deg) Adj'
Adj' > Adj'
Adj' > Adj (PP)
Bar Levels
PP > (Deg) P'
P' > P' (PP)
P' > P (NP)
Specifier Rule
XP > (YP) X'
Adjunct Rule
X' > (ZP) X' or X' (ZP)
Complement Rule
X' > X (WP)
Subcategorization
different verbs take different complements
Complement Clauses
CP > (?) C IP
embedded clause (CP) within a sentence
that, if, whether
Transformations
merge / move
Move operation
after merge op
Merge operation
merge to tree form
Deep Structure
before move op
Surface Structure
after move op, inversion leaves trace (t)
Do-Insertion
if no aux, do-insertion instead
Wh-movement
inversion moves I-to-C, wh-word moves to specifier of C as triangle
Head direction (final vs. initial)
initial (english, french) SVO
final (tamil, japanese) SOV
verb raising
french has V-to-I movement, english does not (except for be)
coordination
XP > XP conj XP
X' > X' conj X'
X > X conj X
pragmatics
the study of how language is used to communicate within its situational context
implicature
something is implied without actually saying it
cooperative principle
participants in a conversation are cooperating with each other
Grice's Maxims: Quality
contributions ought to be true
1. do not say what you believe to be false
2. do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence
Grice's Maxims: Quantity
contributions should be as informative as required; not saying either too little or too much
1. make your contribution as informative as is required
2. do not make your contribution more informative than required
Grice's Maxims: Relation/Relevance
contributions should relate to the purposes of the exchange
1. be relevant
Grice's Maxims: Manner
contributions should be perspicuous- in particular, they should be orderly and brief, avoiding obscurity and ambiguity
1. avoid obscurity of expression
2. avoid ambiguity
3. be brief
4. be orderly
semantics
the study of linguistic meaning
lexical ambiguity
a word has more than one possible meaning
structural ambiguity
a phrase or sentence has more than one possible meaning
synonymy
two words have the same meaning in some or all contexts
antonymy
words contrast in one aspect of their meaning; opposites
binary antonyms
exhaust all possibilities
ex. dead / alive
gradable antonyms
opposite ends of a spectrum
ex. hot / cold ; black / white
converse antonyms
describe a relationship from opposite perspectives
ex. above / below ; win / lose
hyponyms
a word that contains the meaning of a more general word (the hypernym or superordinate)
ex. oak is a hyponym of tree
mare is a hyponym of horse
superordinate
a general word that includes a variety of words within its definition
ex. flower, color
polysemy
word has two or more RELATED senses
ex. screen: cinema, tv, fire
homophony
word has two or more UNRELATED meanings
ex. bright
lexical decomposition
word meaning broken down into semantic features
very limited- how many features? does it work apart from nouns?
overlap
two words have the same value for some (not all) of the semantic features that constitute their meaning
ex. sister, aunt, mother, niece
reference
what objects are referred to by linguistic expressions (words, phrases, sentences)
truth conditions
the study of the conditions under which a statement can be judged true or false
speaker-sense
what the speaker actually means > Pragmatics
linguistic-sense
deals only with the literal meaning of a sentence
referent
entity identified by the referring expression. the actual object picked out.
ex. referring expression - that bird
referent - the bird i am pointing to
extension
refers to the set of all potential referents for a referring expression. all entities in the world that can be picked out.
ex. referring expression - bird
extension - all birds
intension
corresponds to the inherent sense of a referring expression - the concept that it evokes. general concept, not real world objects
ex. phrase - MLB champs
extension - red sox, yankees, etc
intension - the winner of the world series
prototype
a typical member of the extension of a referring expression
ex. dog - labrador, not poodle
stereotype
a list of characteristics describing a prototype
ex. a cat has four legs, a tail, fur, whiskers, chases mice
coreference
two linguistic expressions that refer to the same real world entity. not synonymous, but same referent.
ex. Barack Obama, the president of the US
anaphora
a linguistic expression that refers to another linguistic expression
ex. himself, whoever
often with coreference
deixis
expression with one meaning that can refer to different entities depending on the speaker and his or her special and temporal orientation.
ex. you / I ; left / right ; here / there
analytic sentence
necessarily true by virtue of the words used.
ex. a bachelor is an unmarried man
contradictory sentence
opposite of an analytic sentence.
ex. a bachelor is a married man
synthetic sentence
may be true or false, depending on how the world is.
ex. Charles is married
entailment
proposition that follows NECESSARILY from another sentence. a entails b.
test: the truth of a ensures the truth of b AND the falsity of b ensures the falsity of a.
UNIDIRECTIONAL
ex. Coco is a dog
Coco is an animal
paraphrase
both sentences entail each other
ex. Paul bought a car from Sue
Sue sold a car to Paul
presupposition
proposition that must be ASSUMED to be true in order to judge the truth or falsity of another sentence.
test: consistency under negation.
ex. Maria aced / didn't ace chem
Maria took chem
presupposition triggers
wh-questions
ex. when did you finish your hw?
factive verbs
ex. john proved/argued that his formula was better
agent
the entity that performs an action
theme
the entity undergoing an action or a movement
source
the starting point for a movement
goal
the end point for a movement
location
the place where an action occurs
c-command
NPa c-commands NPb if the first category above NPa contains NPb.
Principle A
a reflexive pronoun must have an antecedent that c-commands it in the same minimal IP
Principle B
a pronominal must not have an antecedent that c-commands it in the same minimal IP
overgeneralization
creating forms children have never heard
ex. writed
babbling
similar across languages
frequently found / p, b, m, t, d, n, k, g, s, h, w, j /
developmental order of phonemes
vowels before consonants. / a, i, u / first
stops come first.
front to back of mouth
labials>alveolars>velars>interdentals
word-initial phonemic contrast first
syllable structure acquisition
CV > CVC > CVCC > CCVCC
syllable deletion
deletion of unstressed syllables (hippopotamus > pas)
retention of final unstressed (potato > tato)
consonant cluster reduction
[s]+stop > delete s ex. stop > top
stop+liquid > del liquid ex. try > ty
fric+liquid > del liquid ex. from > fum
nasal+voiceless stop > del nasal
ex. bump > bup
final consonant reduction
ex. dog > do
stopping
continuant > stop
ex. sing > ting
fronting
move place forward
ex. ship > sip
gliding
liquid > glide
ex. lion > yion
denasalization
nasal > stop
ex. spoon > bud
final devoicing
voiced > unvoiced
ex. bed > bet
assimilation voicing from V to preceding C
tell > del
pig > big
consonant harmony
doggie > goggie
overextension
the meaning of a child's word is more general or inclusive than that of the corresponding adult form
underextension
the use of words in an overly restricted fashion
developmental sequence of morpheme acquisition
1. -ing
2. plural -s
3. poss -s
4. verb be
5. articles the, a
6. past -ed
7. 3rd person -s
8. aux be
one-word stage
12-18 months
'holophrases' (one word as sentence)
most informative word chosen
two-word stage
few months after one-word
mini-sentences
difficult to determine syntax
word order correct
telegraphic stage
2-2.5 years
longer, more complex structures
lacks bound morphemes and non-lexical categories
phrase structure emerges
inversion (acquisition)
first intonation
inversion comes after auxes
wh-questions (acquisition)
ages 2-4
inversion possible with aux
stage where inversion only with yes-no questions