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12 Cards in this Set

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GH secretion is regulated by (3)
growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

somatostatin

ghrelin
GHRH, somatostain and ghrelin activate
G-protein-coupled receptors in pituicytes
GH secretion is stimulated by (7)
deep sleep ("need sleep to grow")

exercise

sex steroids

fasting/hypoglycemia

amino acids

alpha-adrenergic

stress
GH secretioin in inhibited by
IGF-1

obesity

glucocorticoids

hyperglycemia

free fatty acids

beta-adrenergic
function of IGF-1
stimulates growth by:

-stimulating clonal expansion of early chondrocytes
-stimulating chondrocyte maturation
IGF-1 imposes negative feedback on (3)
anterior pituitary (decreased release of GH)

arcuate nucleus (decreased release of GHRH)

somatostatin
pathological causes of short stature (6)
hypopituitarism

GH insensitivity (point mutation or deletion in GH receptor) aka "Laron Syndrome"

short ancestors ("familial" or "genetic" short stature)

constitutional delay of growth and puberty ("late bloomer")

intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)

genetic syndromes (Turner Syndrome, Down Syndrome)
clinical findings for GH insensitivity (3)
normal or high [GH]

low [IGF-1] (GH binds to GH receptors on liver to stimulate IGF-1 synthesis)

low size
clinical findings for constitutional delay of growth and puberty (3)
delayed bone age

delayed onset of puberty

normal adult height (when finished growing)
Turner syndrome patients with isochromosome Xp are _____ and ____
normal height (SHOX locus is on Xp)

infertile (ovary-determining region is on Xq)
Turner syndrome patients with isochromosome Xq are ____ and _____
short (SHOX locus is on Xp)

fertile (ovary-determining region is on Xq)
endocrine causes of short stature (4)
hypothyroidism

GH deficiency

Cortisol excess (e.g., Cushing's disease - moon face, Buffalo hump)

congenital adrenal hyperplasia (leads to precocious puberty - tall stature as children due to increase in androgen, but then short stature due to premature epiphyseal fusion)