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48 Cards in this Set

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other neurotransmitters and hormones that have the same function as glucagon (3)
catecholamines (NE, Epi)

GH

glucocorticoids (cortisol)

*released in times of stress (e.g., exercise, illness)*
delta cells

*location
*synthesize (2)
disperesed in islets of Langerhans' periphery

somatostatin

gastrin
F cells

*location
*synthesize
periphery of islets of Langerhans

pancreatic polypeptide (gastrointestinal hormone)
stimulators of glucagon secretion (4)
hypoglycemia (bg <50 mg/dL)*most important*

increase in Arg and Ala (indicates protein degradation)

sympathetic stimulation (e.g., exercise)

stress (e.g., healing after surgery)
T/F glucagon circulates in the blood bound to carrier proteins
False
inhibitors of glucagon secretion (3)
somatostatin *most important*

insulin

hyperglycemia (bg >200 mg/dL)
effects of glucagon on the liver (4)
glycogenolysis (glycogen --> glucose)

gluconeogenesis (amino acids --> glucose)

lipolysis (TG's --> FA's --> glycerol --> glycerol-phosphate --> glucose)

ketogenesis
effects of glucagon on adipose tissue (2)
decreased glycolysis

increased lipolysis (release of FA's)
levels of cAMP vs. glucagon and insulin
glucagon increases cAMP

insulin decreases cAMP
in hepatocytes, glucagon _______ glycogenolysis and ______ glycogen synthesis by ______ cAMP
stimulates

inhibits

increasing
in hepatocytes, insulin _______ glycogenolysis and ______ glycogen synthesis by _________ cAMP
inhibits

stimulates

decreasing
cAMP controls the production of
fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
glycolysis:

cAMP catalyzes the phosphorylation of ______ thereby _____ it
pyruvate kinsase

inactivating
function of pyruvate kinase
converts PEP to pyruvate
_______ is the principal competitor of gluconeogenesis
lipogenesis
lipogenesis:

cAMP catalyzes the phosphorylation of ______
thereby ______ fatty acid synthesis (lipogenesis)
acetyl CoA carboxylase (catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl CoA to malonyl-CoA)

inhibiting
long chain fatty acids must be linked to ______ in order to cross the mitochondrial membrane
carnitine
carnitine acyl transferase is inhibited by
malonyl-CoA
fatty acid oxidation & ketogenesis:

when fatty acid synthesis is inhibited (i.e., no ______) ________ is activated and fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis occur
malonyl-CoA

carnitine acyl transferase
________ and ______ are formed from the condensation of 2 acetyl CoA molecules
acetoacetate

beta-hydroxybutyrate
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate activates ________and inhibits _________, therby favoring glycolysis
phosphofructo-kinase (PFK)

fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is formed by the enzymes (2)
F-2,6-kinase

F-2,6-phosphatase
glycolysis occurs when fructose-6-phosphate is _____ than fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
<<
glucagon stimulates a(n) ______ in cAMP, thus activating _____
increase

PKA
PKA phosphorylates ______, which converts it to ______
fructose-2,6 kinase

fructose-2,6 phosphatase
when fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is depleted ______ is blocked and _____ decreases
PFK

glycolysis
gluconeogensis if favored when _______ activity increases and _______ is convereted to __________
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase

fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

fructose-6-phosphate
after a meal stimulators of insulin secretion (4)
increased serum glucose

increased serum amino acids (Arg & Lys)

increased serum free fatty acids

increased serum ketone bodies (keto-acids)
hormone stimulators of insulin secretion (7)
GIP

glucagon

gastrin

CCK

secretin

VIP

Epi (beta receptor)

*hormones that are elevated in the presence of food*
neuronal stimulator of insulin secretion
PNS ("Rest & Digest")
"starvation" inhibitors of insulin secretion (3)
decreased serum glucose

decreased serum amino acids

decreased free fatty acids
hormone inhibitors of insulin secretion (2)
somatostatin

Epi (alpha receptor)
increased entrance of glucose into the cell stimulates ________ leading to an increase in ______
glycolysis

ATP
increased _____ inhibits an ATP-sensitive ______
ATP

K-channel
Inhibition of an ATP-sensitiive K-channel causes membrane ______
depolarization
membrane depolarization activates a _________
voltage-gated Ca-channel
activation of a Ca-channel promotes Ca influx, which increases [Ca] and evokes ________
Ca-induced Ca release
elevated Ca leads to exocytosis and release of ______ into the bloodstream
insulin
Na-dependent secondary active glucose transporter located in the intestine and kidney
SGLT-1
facilitated diffusion glucose transporter located in the liver and pancreas
GLUT-2
glucose transporter which moves from the cytosol to plasma membrane in the presence of insulin
GLUT-4
major site of insulin-mediated glucose uptake
skeletal muscle (80%)
in the liver, insulin stimulates (5)
glucose uptake

glycogenesis

glycolysis (supplies acetyl CoA for lipogenesis)

fatty acid synthesis (lipogenesis)

protein synthesis
in the liver, insulin inhibits (6)
glycogenolysis

gluconeogenesis

fat oxidation

ketogenesis

proteolysis

urea cycle
in skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates (5)
glucose uptake (GLUT-4)

glycogenesis

glycolysis (provides acetyl CoA for lipogenesis)

amino acid uptake

protein synthesis
in skeletal muscle, insulin inhibits (2)
glycogenolysis

proteolysis
in adipose tissue, insulin stimulates (5)
glucose uptake (GLUT-4)

glycolysis (alpha-glycerol phosphate)

production of alpha-glycerophosphate

esterifcation of fats

synthesis of lipoprotein lipase
in adipose tissue, insulin inhibits (1)
lipolysis