Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
exocrine secretions from pancreas (2)
aqueous juice

enzyme juice
endocrine secretions from pancreas (2)

aqueous juice is secreted by
centro-acinar cells

duct cells
enzyme juice is secreted by
pancreatic acinar cells
glucagon is secreted by
alpha cells
insulin is secreted by
beta cells
functions of aqueous juice (2)
(1) neutralizes acidic chyme from stomach

-allows pancreatic enzymes to function in their optimal neutral range

- prevents damage to duodenal mucosa by gastric acid

- inactivates pepsin

(2) dilutes enzyme juice
Secretion rate (slow and fast) vs. composition of aqueous secretion

[Na] high at both slow and fast secretion rates

[HCO3] low at slow secretion rates and high at fast secretion rates*

[Cl] high at slow secretion rates and low at fast secretion rates*

[K] low at both slow and fast secretion rates

* HCO3/Cl exchanger function is higher at slow secretion rates
CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) chloride channel is activated by
secretin secretion is stimulated by the presence of
gastric acid (acidic chyme)
secretin action is enhanced by the presence of
secretin inhibits _____ secretion in the stomach, but stimulates _______ secretion in stomach and pancreatic aqueous secretion
gastric acid

upon presence of fatty acids in the duodenum, ______ is released into the blood
cystic firbosis is due to
blocked or defective CFTR chloride channel
patients with cystic fibrosis have viscous ______ and _______
pancreatic aqueous secretion

pulmonary mucous
pancreatic enzymes are synthesized by ______ cells
pancreatic acinar cells
pancreatic enzyme secretion composition:

*protein digestion
*lipid/phospholipid digestion
*polysaccharide digestion
*nucleotide digestion
procarboxypeptidase A
procarboyxpeptidase B



trypsinogen is activated by (2)

chymotrypsinogen is activated by
procarboxypeptidase A and procarboxypeptidase B are activated by
lipase is actiaved by
bile salts
phospholipase is actiaved by
bile salts
amylase is activated by
during the gastric phase, pancreatic enzyme secretion is stimulated by
during the intestinal phase, pancreatic enzyme secretion is stimulated by (2)
secretin (acidic chyme)

CCK (fat)
secretin is synthesized by

*cell type
S cells

duodenal muscosa
secretin secretion is stimulated by presence of _____ in the duodenum
gastric acid (acidic chyme)
pancreatic aqueous secretion is synthesized by
intestinal duct cells
characteristics of pancreatic aqueous secretion:

*volume: high
*[HCO3]: high (neutralizes gastric acid in the duodenum)
*[enzyme]: low
secretin inhibits secretion of _____ and release of _____
gastric acid

secretin stimulates secretion of
CCK is synthesized by

*cell type
I cells

duodenal mucosa
CCK secretion is stimulated by presence of ______ or _____ in the duodenum
fatty acids

amino acids
CCK stimulates ______ and _____ secretion
pancreatic aqueous

pancreatic enzyme (pancreatic acinar cells)
contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi is stimulated by
pancreatic enzyme secretion:

*volume: low
*[enzyme]: high
pancreatic enzyme secretion is stimulated by (5)

*Ca mediated
*cAMP mediated
*Ca mediated:
- ACh
- gastrin

*cAMP mediated:
- secretin
- VIP (important when vipomas are present)

*secretin and CCK act synergistically*
function of bile salts
emulsify fats and steroids in the intestine
bile is produced and secreted by the
path of bile once it's synthesized by the liver
bile canaliculi --> bile ducts --> hepatic ducts --> common bile duct --> duodenum

bile canaliculi --> bile ducts --> hepatic ducts --> cystic duct --> gallbladder
types of bile secretion (2)
bile acid independent secretion

bile acid dependent secretion (bile acid serves as a negative feedback mechanism to bile secretion)
bile acid independent secretion

*location (2)
*stimulated by
canaliculi and bile ducts

bile acid dependent secretion

*inhibited by
parenchymal cells

bile acids returning to liver in portal blood
bile acid synthesis is inhibited by
bile acids returning to the liver (negative feedback inhibition)
bile salts are conjugated with (2)
glycine (75%)

taurine (25%)
conjugated bile salts:

*charge at neutral pH
*water soluble?
*pK: 4
*charge at neutral pH: negative (anionic: -OH and COO- groups)
*water soluble at neutral pH?: Yes
*amphipathic at neutral pH?: yes (allows bile salts to emulsify and solubilize fats and steroids)
bile salts are deconjugated and dehyodroxylated by
intestinal bacteria (distal ileum)
non-ionic bile acids are absorbed in the
small intestine
concentration of bile in the gallbladder is due to
active transport of Na, Cl, and HCO3 out of the lateral membrances of gallbladder epithelial cells
relative bile concentration:

liver vs. gallbladder
bile is 10X more concentrated in the gallbladder than in the liver (due to salt and water removal)
when concentrated, bile forms
bile micelles are composed of (3)
bile salts (80%)

lecithin (15%)

cholesterol (5%)
osmotic activity:

bile micelles vs. bile micelle components
bile micelles have less osmotic activity than individual bile micelle components
release of bile from the gallbladder is stimulated by (2)

vagus n.
gallstone formation:

*stages (3)
*supersaturation of cholesterol
- occurs in the liver

*nucleation and precipitation (seeding of cholesterol cyrstals or microstones)
- occurs in the gallbladder

*growth of microstones to form macrostones