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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reasons why BP decreases (2)
decreased responsiveness to to angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor)

decreased response to NE and ADH
DOC rises due to
extra adrenal 21-hydroxylation of progesterone
reasons why testosterone does not cause pregnant women to grow a beard or loose temporal hair nor cause the genitalia of a femal fetus to become masculinized (3)
sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) binds testosterone

placenta aromatizes testosterone to estrogen

prolongation of the growth phase of scalp hair
changes in heart sounds

*loudness and splitting of first heart sound
*systolic murmurs
*systolic/continuous murmurs
*T wave
*S-T segment
*loudness and splitting of first heart sound: increases
*systolic murmurs: present
*systolic/continuous murmurs: present (from mammary arteries)
*T wave: flattened or inverted
*S-T segment: depressed
hematocrit (Hct.)
decreases (because plasma volume increases more than red blood cell volume does = hemodilution)

"physiologic anemia"
Hb concentration
remains the same
rationale for hypervolemia/hemodilution (5)
protects mother from orthostatic hypotension

protects mother from risks of hemorrhage at delivery

increased red blood cell mass meets increased oxygen requirement of pregnancy

most of the increased blood volume goes to the uterus, skin and kidneys (organs for excretion and heat loss)

decrease in viscosity leads to decreased resistance to blood flow (hence decrease in cardiac work needed to maintain circulation)
venous arm pressure
remains the same
femoral venous pressure
increases (obstruction by uterine weight on iliac veins and IVC, pressure of fetal head on iliac veins and outflow of blood at high pressure from uterus)
rate of blood flow
circulation time (lower limbs)
increases (due to increase in venous pressure, esp, iliac veins)
circulation time (upper limbs - arm to tongue)
remains the same
cardiovascular clinical implications of pregnancy (4)


thromboembolism (increased blood coagulability, varicose veins, decrease in rate of blood flow in legs)

improvement in Raynaud's Syndrome (6-7X in blood flow to the hands)
minute ventilation
tidal volume (TV)
inspiratory capacity
decreases (due in increased inspiratory capacity)
remains the same
remains the same
remains the same
decreases (due to increased minute ventilation)
serum [HCO3]
decreases (due to increased minute ventilation)
increases (slightly)

*respiratory alkalosis* (due to increased minute ventilation)
respiratory clinical implications of pregnancy (2)
increase respiratory intake of noxious substances

dyspnea (SOB)
increases (due to increased minute ventilation)
O2 carrying capacity
increases (due to increased number of rbc's)
a-v O2 difference
ureteral dilation stops at _____ due to (2)
pelvic brim


obstruction (enlarging uterus, dilated ovarian and uterine veins)
T/F ureteral dilation is due to reduced tone, i.e., reduced frequency or amplitude of ureteric contractions
False (reduced tone is due to smooth muscle hyperplasia)
urinary system clinical implications of pregnancy (5)
24-hour urine collection errors

radiographic mis-interpretation

urinary tract infections (UTI's)

acute obstruction/non-traumatic rupture of ureter

urine retention
serum [TG]
GI tract clinical implications of pregnancy (6)
reduced incidence of peptic ulcer (due to decreased gastric secretions)

amelioration of peptic ulcer (due to decreased gastric secretions)

increased heartburn (due to decreased GI motility)

food retention (vomiting, aspiration)

appendix displaced upwards and laterally

increased gallstone formation (due to thick and viscous bile)
changes due to estrogen:

*oxytocin receptors
*gap junctions
*oxytocin receptors: increase
*depolarization: increases
*gap junctions: increase

(in preparation for uterine contractions)
changes due to progesterone:

*oxytocin receptors
*gap junctions
*oxytocin receptors: decrease
*depolarization: decreases
*gap junctions: decrease