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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
synthesis and release of FSH and LH is regulated by
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
GnRH is secreted by (2)
arcuate nucleus

preoptic area
GnRH --> FSH & LH signaling pathway
LH binds to receptors on _____ which results in the biosynthesis of _____ and ____
ovarian theca cells


granulosa cells convert ______ to _______


(granulosa cells posses aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogen)
FSH binds to receptors on _____ which results in the synthesis of _____, ____ and _____
basolateral membrane of granulosa cells



activins and inhibins act on
anterior pituitary (only)
estrogens and progestins act on
anterior pituitary

hypothalamic neurons
beginning of menstrual cycle is called
menarche (10-16.5 y.o.)
beginning of breast development is called
thelarche (8-18 y.o.)
increased secretion of adrenal androgens is called
adrenarche (11-14 y.o.)
the _____ is the site of fertilization
ampulla of the fallopian tube (oviduct)
growth and maturation of a primordial follicle is stimulated by
Graffian follicles produce ______ and rupture to release a(n) _____
estradiol (estrogen)

positive feedback due to the release of estradiol from Graffian follicles results in
LH surge
corpus luteum produces
atresia of the corpus luteum results in the formation of the
corpus albicans
during puberty, GnRH secretion becomes ______ and feedback inhibition of anterior pituitary gonadotrophs by circulating estrogens ______

day and night LH levels:

*reproductive years
*childhood: low and non-pulsatile during day and night
*puberty: low during day and high and pulsatile at night
*reproductive years: high and pulsatile during day and night
*menopause: very high and pulsatile during day and night
___ and ____ levels cycle during reproductive years
LH and FSH
____ and ____ levels increase to very high levels and then plateau during menopause
LH and FSH
T/F negative feedback of estrogens on gonadotropin (LH and FSH) release increases with age
False (negative feedback of estrogens on gonadotropin release is very high during childhood and decreases with increasing age)

child - low levels of estrogens block release of LH and FSH

adult - very high levels of estrogens are needed to block the release of LH and FSH
T/F LH and FSH levels peak in the fetus and during infancy before become very low during childhood
stages of the ovarian cycle (3)
follicular phase (days 0-14)

ovulation (day 14)

luteal phase (days 14-28)
stages of the endometrial cycle (3)
menses (days 0-4)

proliferative phase (days 4-14)

secretory phase (days 14-28)
days during menstrual cycle in which an oocyte can be fertilized in the ampulla of the fallopian tube
days 14-18
estradiol and progesterone profiles during menstrual cycle
lowest at day 0

increase rapidly at days 12-14 due to decrease in FSH

increase dramatically during days 16-22 (FSH decrease) and then fall back to day 0 levels
LH profile during menstrual cycle
low until surge at day 14 due to positive feedback by estradiol and progesterone
FSH profile during menstrual cycle
high at day 0

decreases until day 12 (allows estradiol and progesterone to increase due to lack of FSH negative feedback)

spikes at day 14 and then decreases until day 26 when it again rises to starting high level
LH and FSH surge is due to
high levels of circulating estrogens (estradiol and progesterone) during the late follicular phase (day 12) sensitizing the anterior pituitary gonadotrophs to stimulation by GnRH
LH surge induces
rupture of Graffian follicle and lease of an oocyte = ovulation
ovulation is marked by an increase in
basal body temperature of 1 degree F

(temperature increases as progesterone levels increase)
buildup of the endometrium is known as the _____ phase and is stimulated by _____ early and ____ late
proliferative phase

estradiol (early) and progesterone (late)
the maintenance of the endometrium is known as the _____ phase and is marked by an increase in ______

progesterone (by the corpus luteum)
ovarian steroids (estrogen and progesterone) are synthesized from cholesterol in the ____ and ____ cells

granulosa cells are stimulated by
theca cells are stimulated by
aromatase is located in the ____ cells

(only granulosa cells have aromatase, therefore androgens are imported into the granulosa cells where they are converted to estradiol)
aromatase converts ______ into _____

estrogens (estradiol)
during the follicular phase _____ is the major steroid hormone present
during the luteal phase _____ is the major steroid hormone present
T/F theca-lutein and granulosa-lutein cells can produce progesterone

(only theca cells can produce androgens from progesterone and only granulosa cells can produce estrogens from androgens)
T/F granulosa cells lack the enzyme that converts progesterone into androgens (testosterone)
True (progesterone is imported into the thecal cells where it is converted into androgens, e.g., testosterone)