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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
plasma Ca is bound to (3)
protein, i.e., albumin (40%)

citrate and phosphate (10%)
symptoms of hypocalcemia

general (2)
neuronal (1)
cardiac (2)
general:
-learning retardation (chidlren)
-apnea

neuronal:
-tetany (spasms, seizures, numbness, muscle cramps)

cardiac:
-long Q-T interval
-reduced cardiac output
symptoms of hypercalcemia

general (5)
neuronal (3)
caridac (2)
renal (3)
general:
-fatigue
-apathy
-anorexia
-delerium
-coma

neuronal:
-headache
-ICP
-muscle weakness

cardiac:
-short Q-T interval
-bradycardia

renal:
-polydipsia
-polyuria
-HTN
intracellular Ca is bound to (3)
mitochondria

microsomes

ER
targets of PTH (2)
kidney

bone cells
effects of PTH on the kidney (3)
increased Ca reabsorption at dct

increased PO4 excretion

increased 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis (PTH activates vitamin D synthesis)

*PO4 binds Ca and lowers plasma [Ca]*
effects of PTH on bone cells (2)
increased osteoclastic resorption via receptors on osteoblasts (only osteoblasts contain PTH receptors; send paracrine signals to osteoclasts)

increased Ca and PO4 in ECF and plasma
targets of vitamin D (2)
intestine

bone
effect of vitamin D on the intestine
increased Ca and PO4 absorption (24-48 hour response time)
effects of vitamin D on bone (2)
increased osteoclastic resorption via receptors on osteoblasts (paracrine singalling)

decreased PTH secretion (negative feedback mechanism)
vitamin D synthesis steps
7-dehydrocholesterol (skin) + UV light --> cholicalciferol (Vit. D3-inactive form, blood) --> 25-OH cholicalciferol (measured via blood test, liver) --> 1,25(OH)2D3 (active form, kidney)
osteoclast maturation is stimulated by
RANK ligand
bone resorption is inhibited by
OPG (binds to RANK ligand receptors on premature osteoclasts to prevent osteoclast maturation)
OPG is produced by
osteoblasts
ways to prevent bone fractures (5)
adequate Ca and vitamin D

early bone mass accumulation

bisphosphates (Fosamax) - inhibit osteoclast activity

estrogen and estrogen receptor modulators

pulsed PTH