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20 Cards in this Set

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testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by
5α-reductase
FETAL Leydig cells

*stimulated by
*produce
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

testosterone
testosterone stimulates wolffian ducts to develop into (4)
epididymis

ductus (vas) deferens

seminal vesicles

ejaculatory ducts
the Mullerian ligament degenerates due to the production of __________ by ______ cells
anti-Mullerian substance

Sertoli cells
DHT stimulates the development of (3)
penis

scrotum

prostate
_______ and ______ are necessary for the development of unambiguous external genitalia
5α-reductase

DHT receptors
bound circulating testosterone is bound to (2)
sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)

albumin
in the cytoplasm, free testosterone binds to
androgen receptor
LH from anterior pituitary stimulates Leydig cells to synthesize
enzymes and other proteins necessary for the biosynthesis of testosterone
FSH from anterior pituitary stimulates Sertoli cells to synthesize (4)
androgen binding protein (ABP)

aromatase

growth factors (necessary for testosterone production by Leydig cells)

inhibins (negatively feedback to anterior pituitary and hypothalamus)
function of inhibins

*paracrine function
*endocrine function
stimulation of Leydig cell mitosis

negative feedback on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis
Spermatogenesis is initiated at puberty by _____ via _____ cells and supported by _____-driven increases in _____
FSH

Sertoli cells

LH

testosterone
DHT, estrogen and/or testosterone:

intrauterine penis, scrotum, urethra and prostate development:
intrauterine differentiation of epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens and seminal vesicles:
feedback suppression of gonadotropic secretion:
imprint male pattern of gonadotropins, sex drive and behavior:
larynx (male voice):
skeleton:
upper body fat:
muscle mass:
rbc's:
liver (increased VLDL, increased LDL, decreased HDL):
sperm production:
pubertal development of seminal vesicles and penis:
pubertal development of sebum formation, beard growth and prostate:
intrauterine penis, scrotum, urethra and prostate development: DHT
intrauterine differentiation of epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens and seminal vesicles: testosterone
feedback suppression of gonadotropic secretion: DHT and testosterone
imprint male pattern of gonadotropins, sex drive and behavior: DHT, estrogen (esp. sex drive) and testosterone
larynx (male voice): testosterone
skeleton: estrogen
upper body fat: testosterone
muscle mass: testosterone
rbc's: testosterone
liver (increased VLDL, increased LDL, decreased HDL): testosterone
sperm production: DHT, estrogen and tesosterone
pubertal development of seminal vesicles and penis: DHT and testosterone
pubertal development of sebum formation, beard growth and prostate: DHT
SNS components of erection, emission and ejaculation (3)
hypogastric nerve

cavernous nerve

pelvic plexus (T11-L2)
PNS components of erection, emission and ejaculation (3)
pelvic nerve

cavernous nerve

pelvic plexus (S2-S4)
Sensory component of erection, emission and ejaculation
dorsal nerve (travels to spinal cord via pudendal nerve)
relaxation of vascular smooth muscle supplying the corpora associated with erection is due to (2)
stimulation of PNS fibers in the cavernous nerve

reduction in SNS tone in hypogastric and cavernous nerves and pelvic plexus
erection mechanism
NO (NO decreases intracellular Ca via a cGMP mediated mechanism)

*elevated cGMP levels leads to enhanced vasodilatory response*
contraction of ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles (skeletal muscles) to increase engorgement of corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum is due to
stimulation of somatic fibers in the pudendal nerve
contraction of vascular smooth muscle of distal epididymis, vas deferens and accessory sex glands to actively propel semen into prostatic urethra is due to
stimulation of SNS fibers of hypogastric nerve