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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ileal contraction and ileocecal sphincter relaxation is stimulated by
ileocecal sphincter contraction is stimulated by (2)
cecum distention

cecum irritation
mass movements are facilitated by (4)
gastrocolic reflex

duodenocolic reflex

PNS stimulation (e.g., emotion)

over-distension of the colon
movement of feces into the rectum initiates weak intrinsic contractions in (3)
descending colon

sigmoid colon

PNS defecation relex involves
pelvic nerves (from sacral cord)
forward movement of feces produces contraction of
external anal sphincter
causes of steatorrhea (4)
pancreatic disease (failure to produce and/or release pancreatic enzymes)

increased gastrin secretion

bile acid deficiency

decreased number of enterocytes (e.g., sprue, failed apoprotein B synthesi)
large intestine absorbs Cl via
HCO3/Cl exchanger
relative [HCO3] in feces
low [HCO3] in feces

(due to bacteria producing organic acids which combine with HCO3 to form CO2 and H2O)
causes of diarrhea (3)
viruses and bacteria (increase cAMP and inhibit NaCl reabsorption)

PNS stimulation (psycholgenic)

long distance running

(all 3 causes increased colon motility and secretion)
% composition of solid feces (5)
30% dead bacteria

30% undigested roughage and digestive matter (bile pigments, sloughed epithelial cells)

10-20% fat

10-20% inorganic matter

2-3% protein
brown color of feces is due to (2)


(derivatives of bilirubin)
white or pale stool (acholic) is due to (2)

bile duct blockage
components of vomiting (emesis) relex (2)
vomiting center (in the medulla near the NTS)

chemoreceptor trigger zone (floor of 4th ventricle)
function of vomiting center
integrates activity from GI tract directly and from the vestibular system and cortex through the chemoreceptor trigger zone
first step in vomiting (emesis)
reverse peristalsis (GI contents are pushed back to duodenum and stomach)
second step in vomiting (emesis)
activation of vomitting center
vomiting center activation results in (6)
a deep breath

glottis closes

strong downward contraction of diaphragm

contraction of abdominal wall muscles

relaxation of lower esophageal spincter (LES)

expulsion of GI contents
flatus is composed of (6)


carbon dioxide



odiferous gases (small amounts)
IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) is caused by (2)

augmented gastrocolic reflex
Pseudoobstruction is
intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical obstruction
paralytic ileus

*GI syndrome classification
*occurs after
*characterized by
*GI syndrome classification: pseudoobstruction
*occurs after abdominal surgery
*characterized by slow waves, but absence of action potentials (so no GI smooth muscle contractions)
power propulsion (peristaltic rush) is caused by
-allergic reactions
power propulsion (peristaltic rush) is
long-lasting contractions of circular smooth muscle that propagate for extended distances