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13 Cards in this Set

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relative T/S (thyroid/serum) ratio in the presence of TSH
T/S ratio is high due to iodide trapping:
- TSH increases the activity of the Na/I cotransporter located on the basolateral membrane of the thyroid follicular cell
peripheral deiodinases are located in (2)
liver

kidney
____ is the major thryoid hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
T4
T4 vs. T3

*% bound
*biologic potency (activity)
*% oral absorption
T4

*% bound: 99.96%
*biologic potency (activity): 1 (more T4 bound than T3)
*% oral absorption: 75-90%

T3

*% bound: 99.6%
*biologic potency (activity): 4 (because less T3 is bound than T4)
*% oral absorption: 95%
circulating T4 & T3 is bound to
thyroxin binding globulin (TBG)
thyroid hormones induces the transcription and translation of (5)
Na/K pump

gluconeogenic enzymes

respiratory enzymes

myosin heavy chain

beta adreneric receptors
hypothyroidism:

*BMR
*gluconeogenesis
*glycogenolysis
*serum [glucose]
*protein synthesis
*protein proteolysis
*lipogenesis
*lipolysis
*serum [cholesterol]
*thermogenesis
*serum [catecholamines]
*bowel function
*BMR: decreased
*gluconeogenesis: decreased
*glycogenolysis: decreased
*serum [glucose]: normal
*protein synthesis: decreased
*protein proteolysis: decreased
*lipogenesis: decreased
*lipolysis: decreased
*serum [cholesterol]: elevated (less readily metabolized)
*thermogenesis: decreased
*serum [catecholamines]: normal
*bowel function: decreased (constipation)
hyperthyroidism

*BMR
*gluconeogenesis
*glycogenolysis
*serum [glucose]
*protein synthesis
*protein proteolysis
*lipogenesis
*lipolysis
*serum [cholesterol]
*thermogenesis
*serum [catecholamines]
*bowel function
*BMR: increased
*gluconeogenesis: increased
*glycogenolysis: increased
*serum [glucose]: normal
*protein synthesis: increased
*protein proteolysis: increased (leads to muscle wasting)
*lipogenesis: increased
*lipolysis: increased
*serum [cholesterol]: decreased (increased metabolism)
*thermogenesis: increased
*serum [catecholamines]: normal (however, increased sensitivity to catecholamines due in increased expression of beta adrenergic receptors)
*bowel function: increased (diahrrea)
TSH release is inhibited by (2)
somatostatin

dopamine
clinical presentation of hyperthyroidism
elevated BMR
tachycardia
sweating
heat-intolerance
nervousness
muscle-wasting and weakness
tremor
difficulty sleeping
changes in hair growth and skin texture
toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)
exophthalmos
localized mucopolysaccharide deposition (under eyes)
eyelid retraction
thyroid storm
lab values for a pt. with hyperthyroidism
presence of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins
decreased TSH (T4 & T3 negative feedback)
increases thyroid hormone
clinical presentation of hypothyroidism
decreased BMR
cold-intolerance
lethargy
headache
skin changes
constipation
non-toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland due to increased colloid deposition - colloid/TG lacks associated TH)
general mucopolysaccharide deposition (face)
myxedema coma
lab values for a pt. with hypothyroidism
anti-thyroid antibodies
increased TSH (no T4 & T3 negative feedback)
decreased TH