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61 Cards in this Set

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Describe COVERT SENSITIZATION.
~IMAGINARY AVERSIVE COUNTERCONDITIONING

~GOAL: DECREASE A BEHAVIOR.

A type of txt based on AVERSIVE COUNTERCONDITIONING.
For example, imagining a snake in front of you, naturally ilicits an UR.
WHAT IS THE CRITICAL FACTOR IN SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION?
Critical factor in systematic desensitization is EXPOSURE to situations that evoke anxiety WITHOUT actually experiencing negative consequences OR EXTINCTION

CS w/o US
FOR EXAMPLE, HAVING A FEAR OF HEIGHTS AND STANDING ON THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING BUT NOT EXPERIENCING THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES.
What is STRESS INOCULATION?
-Stress inoculation, is a technique to help people COPE WITH STRESS by increasing/developing COPING SKILLS.

-3 phases

1. COGNITIVE PHASE
2. SKILL ACQUISITION PHASE
3. APPLICATION PHASE
What is OVERCORRECTION?
~Used to treat acting-out behaviors.

~2 PROCEDURES:

1. RESTITUTION

2. POSITIVE PRACTICE

~PHYSICAL GUIDANCE maybe used.

WHAT IS OVERCORRECTION?
What is FLOODING?
-IN-VIVO EXPOSURE w/ RESPONSE PREVENTION

-COMMONLY USED TO TXT ANXIETY

What is FLOODING?
What is SEMANTIC MEMORY?
~A TYPE OF LTM

~KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LANGUAGE

~RULES FOR MANIPULATING WORDS & SYMBOLS

~DECLARATIVE

What is SEMANTIC MEMORY?
What are txts based on COUNTERCONDITIONING (based on Reciprocal Inhibition) TREATMENTS?
1. SYSTEMATIC DENSITIZATION
2. BEHAVIORAL SEX THERAPY

What are the COUNTERCONDITIONING TREATMENTS?
What are the AVERSIVE COUNTERCONDITIONING TREATMENTS?
1. IN VIVO AVERSION THERAPY
2. COVERT SENSITIZATION

What are the AVERSIVE COUNTERCONDITIONING TREATMENTS?
What are the types of txt based on CLASSICAL EXTINCTION?
1. IN VIVO EXPOSURE W/ RESPONSE PREVENTION (FLOODING)
2. GRADUATED EXPOSURE
3. EMDR
4. IMPLOSIVE THERAPY
Describe THORNDIKE'S "LAW OF EFFECT"?
WHEN A BEHAVIOR IS ACCOMPANIED BY "SATISFYING CONSEQUENCES" or REINFORCEMENT, THE BEHAVIOR IS LIKELY TO OCCUR AGAIN.

Describe THORNDIKE'S "LAW OF EFFECT"?
WHAT WAS WOLFGANG KOHLER KNOWN FOR?
Learning involves knowing the RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ELEMENTS of the PROBLEM.

HE BELIEVED IN INSIGHT.

WHAT WAS WOLFGANG KOHLER KNOWN FOR?
WHAT IS DECLARATIVE MEMORY?
~a type of LTM

~FACTS

~LEARNING THAT

~2 parts:

SEMANTIC = KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LANGUAGE

EPISODIC = AUTOPBIOGRAPHICAL (AGING IMPACTS)

WHAT IS DECLARATIVE MEMORY?
What is EXPLICIT MEMORY?
~A CONSCIOUS RECOLLECTION

~Involves the HIPPOCAMPUS & FRONTAL LOBE

What is EXPLICIT MEMORY?
WHAT IS PRIMING EFFECT?
THE ABILITY TO SOLVE (READ) A BROKEN WORD (E.G. MISSING LETTERS)

WHAT IS PRIMING EFFECT?
WHAT IS PROSPECTIVE MEMORY?
~a type of LTM

~REMEMBERING WHAT TO DO NEXT (eg. in the FUTURE)

~ELDERS, do poorly IN LABS, BUT GOOD IN NATURALISTIC SETTINGS

WHAT IS PROSPECTIVE MEMORY?
WHAT IS METAMEMORY?
~KNOWING HOW TO KNOW

~PART OF METACOGNITION

WHAT IS METAMEMORY?
WHAT IS ARBITRARY INFERENCE?

(COGNITIVE DISTORTION)
DRAWING A CONCLUSION W/O EVIDENCE

WHAT IS ARBITRARY INFERENCE?
WHAT IS OVERGENERALIZATION?

(COGNITIVE DISTORTION)
Drawing a conclusion based on 1 EVENT

WHAT IS OVERGENERALIZATION?
WHAT IS SELECTIVE ABSTRACTION?

(COGNITIVE DISTORTION)
ATTENDING TO DETAIL, WHILE IGNORING CONTEXT

WHAT IS SELECTIVE ABSTRACTION?
WHAT IS PERSONALIZATION?

(COGNITIVE DISTORTION)
ATTRIBUTING EXTERNAL EVENTS TO SELF

WHAT IS PERSONALIZATION?
WHAT IS POLARIZED THINKING?

(COGNITIVE DISTORTION)
DICHOTOMOUS THINKING

WHAT IS POLARIZED THINKING?
What was TOLMAN known for?
LATENT LEARNING

What was TOLMAN known for?
What theorist believed in INSIGHT?
~GESTALT
~KOHLER
~remember the CHIMP EXPERIMENT

What theorist believed in INSIGHT?
What is OBSERVATIONAL (SOCIAL) LEARNING (BANDURA)?
WE LEARN MERELY THROUGH OBSERVATION, THAT'S ALL. Reinforcement is not important.

What is OBSERVATIONAL (SOCIAL) LEARNING (BANDURA)?
Describe FIXED INTERVAL.
~LOW RATES OF RESPONDING (bec. No of responses is UNRELATED to the DELIVERY of REINFORCEMENT)

~PAUSE ("SCALLOP) AFTER DELIVERY OF REINFORCER THEN IT BEGINS AGAIN

Describe FIXED INTERVAL.
Describe VARIABLE INTERVAL.
Unpredictable rate of time (e.g. 30 seconds, 45 seconds, etc.)

Results in a LOW and STEADY RATE OF RESPONDING(E.G. POP QUIZ)

Describe VARIABLE INTERVAL.
Describe FIXED RATIO.
~HIGH STEADY RATE USUALLY WITH A BRIEF PAUSE

~HIGHER QUANTITY, LOWER QUALITY, SATIATION AND FATIGUE

Describe FIXED RATIO.
Describe VARIABLE RATIO.
~HIGHEST RESPONSES

~MOST RESISTANT TO EXTINCTION

~SLOT MACHINES

Describe VARIABLE RATIO.
What is SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING (MEICHENBAUM)?
A COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING TECHNIQUE

What is SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING (MEICHENBAUM)?
What is DIVERGENT THINKING?
~A type of FLEXIBLE THINKING OR CREATIVE THINKING, THINKING WITH THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRAIN

~CONSIDERING A WIDE RANGE OF SOLUTIONS

What is DIVERGENT THINKING?
WHAT IS A PAIRED ASSOCIATE TASK?
~THIS IS WHEN THE INDIVIDUAL RESPONDS WITH ONE MEMBER OF A PAIR WHEN PRESENTED WITH THE OTHER MEMBER

WHAT IS A PAIRED ASSOCIATE TASK?
WHAT IS A SERIAL LEARNING TASK?
LEARNING AND RECALLING A LIST OF WORDS IN A PARTICULAR ORDER.

WHAT IS A SERIAL LEARNING TASK?
WHAT IS THE OVERJUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS?
~EXTRINSIC REWARD FOR AN ACTIVITY WILL DECREASE/REDUCE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION.

~DISCONTINUE EXTRINSIC REWARD WILL DECREASE INTEREST AND PARTICIPATION BELOW PRE-EXTRINSIC REWARD LEVEL.

WHAT IS THE OVERJUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS?
WHAT IS COVERT SENSITIZATION?
~A TYPE OF AVERSIVE CONDITIONING

~THE INDIVIDUAL IMAGINES THE AVERSIVE CONDITION AND THEN IMAGINES THE BEHAVIOR

WHAT IS COVERT SENSITIZATION?
WHAT IS INVIVO AVERSION THERAPY?
~A TYPE OF AVERSIVE CONDITIONING

~USED TO TXT ADDICTIONS (E.G. PEDOPHILLIA)

WHAT IS INVIVO AVERSION THERAPY?
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FOCUS IN RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY (ELLIS)?
CHANGING ONE'S IRRATIONAL BELIEFS SYSTEMS

WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FOCUS IN RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY (ELLIS)?
What is one of BECK's focus when treating a client or patient?
ERRORS IN THINKING

What is one of BECK's focus when treating a client or patient?
What was LEWINSOHN known for?
INADEQUATE RESPONSE-CONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT

What was LEWINSOHN known for?
What was SELIGMAN known for?
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

What was SELIGMAN known for?
What was WOLPE known for?
WE DEVELOP ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, ETC THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

What was WOLPE known for?
WHY IS BACKWARD CONDITIONING UNLIKELY TO PRODUCE A CONDITIONED RESPONSE?
~THE US PRECEDES THE CS

~INEFFECTIVE, THE CS SHOULD BE PRESENTED FIRST

WHY IS BACKWARD CONDITIONING UNLIKELY TO PRODUCE A CONDITIONED RESPONSE?
Describe CLASSICAL EXTINCTION.
CS W/O THE US

Describe CLASSICAL EXTINCTION.
HOW DO LEARNING THEORISTS VIEW TRANSFERENCE?
IT'S ABOUT GENERALIZATION

HOW DO LEARNING THEORISTS VIEW TRANSFERENCE?
What was KANDEL known for?
HE STUDIED NEURAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ASSOCIATIVE AND NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNING APLYSIA (E.G. SEA SLUG)

What was KANDEL known for?
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CHAINING AND SHAPING?
IN SHAPING, THE GOAL IS THE END BEHAVIOR & involves REINFORCEMENT, WHILE IN CHAINING, THE WHOLE STRING (CHAIN) OF BEHAVIORS IS IMPORTANT

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CHAINING AND SHAPING?
EBBINGHAUS RESEARCH INVOLVED?
Ebbinghaus was interested in assessing the effects of time on memory and, based on the results of his studies, constructed a "curve of forgetting," which shows that 50% of memorized syllables are forgotten within less than one hour.

Ebbinghaus memorized syllables using rote learning (verbatim learning through repetition) and found that rote learning of nonsense syllables leads to rapid forgetting.

EBBINGHAUS RESEARCH INVOLVED?
MATCHING LAW INVOLVES?
The matching law states that, when using concurrent schedules of reinforcement, the proportion of responses will match the proportion of reinforcements.

MATCHING LAW INVOLVES?
What is SENSORY MEMORY?
CAN STORE LARGE AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION FOR A VERY BRIEF PERIOD OF TIME PROBABLY .5 SECONDS

What is SENSORY MEMORY?
What are some BEHAVIORAL TREATMENTS FOR DEPRESSION?
SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING

What are some BEHAVIORAL TREATMENTS FOR DEPRESSION?
SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS AKA
-ATTENTIONAL CAPACITY

-CAN BE INCREASED BY CHUNKING AND PRACTICE

SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS AKA

THE CAPACITY OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS .7 PLUS OR MINUS 2.
WHAT IS THE ZEIGARNIK EFFECT?
-REMEMBERING INTERRUPTED UNCOMPLETED TASKS BETTER THAN COMPLETED ONES.

WHAT IS THE ZEIGARNIK EFFECT?
Give and example of NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT.
~REMOVAL OF POSITIVE REINFORCMENT

~TYPES: time out and response cost

Give and example of NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT.
Give an example of NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT?
ESCAPE CONDITIONING

Give an example of NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT?
What is RETROACTIVE interference?
MEMORY LOSS due to NEWLY-LEARNED MATERIAL INTERFERING with PREVIOUSLY-LEARNED material

What is RETROACTIVE interference?
What is PROACTIVE interference?
MEMORY LOSS due to PRIOR LEARNING INTERFERING with the LEARNING or RECALL of SUBSEQUENT MATERIAL.

What is PROACTIVE interference?
What are some theories of FORGETTING?
1. TRACE DECAY theory

(LEARNING PRODUCES a TRACE or ENGRAM, which is a physio change in the brain that DECAYS over time as the result of disuse e.g. "Use it or lose it.")

2. INTERFERENCE theory

(RETRO AND PRO ACTIVE INTERFERENCE)

3. CUE-DEPENDENT FORGETTING theory

(CUES NEEDED to RETRIEVE INFOR from long-term memory are INSUFFICIENT or INCOMPLETE. e.g. "TIP of the TONGUE technique)

What are some theories of FORGETTING?
What is the INFORMATION PROCESSING (Multi-Store) Model about?
SENSORY MEMORY (SENSORY REGISTER) then SHORT-TERM MEMORY then LONG-TERM MEMORY

What is the INFORMATION PROCESSING (Multi-Store) Model about?
What is the LEVEL-OF-PROCESSING APPROACH?
-DIFF in MEMORY are due to DIFF in depth of processing RATHER THAN to SEPARATE MEMORY STORES.

-When trying to memorize a word, the individual focuses on the STRUCTURAL, or PHYSICAL, PROPERTIES or it's MEANING (BEST for RECALL).

What is the LEVEL-OF-PROCESSING APPROACH?
What are AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS (Beck)?
-A PERSON'S UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS

-INTERSEDES BET AN EVENT OR STIMULI & INDIV EMOT & BEH REACTIONS

What are AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS (Beck)?
Describe GUIDED PARTICIPATION/PARTICIPANT MODELING.
FOUND TO BE BETTER THAN SYMBOLIC MODELING, OR SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION

Describe GUIDED PARTICIPATION/PARTICIPANT MODELING.
What is VERBAL REPRIMANDS?
-"NO" OR "STOP"

-SMTMS THIS ACTUALLY INCREASES BEH

-MORE EFFECTIVE IF CONSEQUENCES ARE APPLIED (E.G. TIMEOUT)

What is VERBAL REPRIMANDS?