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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In a serial position task, which part of the list is best recalled after a brief delay (10-30 sec)?
The beginning
Describe stress innoculation technique
1. EDUCATION on effects of maladaptive cognitions

2. REHEARSAL of coping skills

3. PRACTICE applying skills to a variety of situations
negative / positive
reenforcement / punishment
Negative / positive refer to the stimulus
Negative removes the stimulus; positive applies it

Reenforcement / punishment refer to the response
Reenforcement increases the response; punishment decreases it
Def: blocking (classical conditioning)
Step 1: classical CS1 - UCS
Step 2: CS2 paired with CS1
Step 3: CS1, CS2 - UCS
Step 4: CS2 does not elicit response
What are the advantages of psychomotor training for the elderly?
Improvements in:
response speed
defensive driving
Def: contrast effect
A non-linear (disproportionate) response to an increase in a stimulus
Def: rebound effect
Increase in a response following a period of quiessence
Primary cause of decrements in recent long term memory in the elderly
Problems with encoding strategies
Experiment design for study of retroactive interference
Experimental group learns material similar to the original list. The control group engage in a dissimilar activity that prevents rehearsal
Role of paradoxical intention for a behavior therapist
In asking client to engage in a feared activity, anticipatory anxiety will be reduced because it is incompatibile with action
Def: backward conditioning *
Presenting the US before the CS

Ineffective in eliciting a CR
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses meeting with satisfaction are likely to be repeated

Responses resulting in discomfort will not
Thorndike's Law of Exercise
Responses occuring often enough in the presence of a stimulus are more likely to be repeated in the presence of the stimulus
Thorndike's Law of Readiness
An organism must be ready to perform an act before it can become satisfying
Def: extinction
Elimination of a conditioned response as a result of repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS
Def: pseudoconditioning
An apparently conditioned response is an artifact of the conditioning situation, ie the conditioning is to the collective effect of the learning situation, not the experimental CS, and doesn't occur outside the learning situation
Def: delayed conditioning *
Presentation of the CS precedes but overlaps presentation of the UCS.

Usually elicits the strongest response and is acquired most quickly
Def: counterconditioning
Pairing an undesirable behavior with an incompatible behavior in order to eliminate the undesirable behavior
Def: flooding
Exposing a person to an anxiety-provoking situtation while preventing the avoidance response
Def: behavioral contrast
2 similar behaviors have been separately reenforced. When one is exstinguished, the other increases in frequency.
Def: Premack principle
Using a high probability behavior to reenforce a low probability behavior

Eg you can watch TV if you do your homework
Mower's two part theory of avoidance behavior
1. Avoidance is learned by pairing a stimulus with aversive consequences (avoidance conditioning)
2. Avoidance is maintained because it results in a reduction of anxiety (negative reenforcement)
Def: aversive counterconditioning
Pairing an aversive stimulus with a maladaptive behavior in order to reduce or eliminate the behavior. Intent is to get the maladaptive behavior to elicit the aversive response.
Def: covert sensitization *
Imaginal aversive counterconditioning
Def: operant behaviors (operants)
Spontaneously emitted behaviors controlled primarily by consequences
Def: rational-emotive therapy (Ellis)
Maladaptive behavior based on irrational beliefs, which therapy then tries to alter.
Matching Law
Rate of response is proportional to the rate of reinforcement

cp contrast effect
Distinction between negative punishment and operant extinction
In operant extinction the behavior you are trying to eliminate was previously reenforced
Def: retroactive interference *
Retroactive inhibition occurs when a new experience interferes with recall of an earlier one.
Def: proactive interference *
Proactive interference prevents the learning of new material because of something that precedes the learning
Panic Control Treatment
exposes patient to internal sensations that ordinarily accompany a panic attack
Def: reciprocal inhibition *
Reduction of anxiety by pairing it with relaxation or other incompatible response (Wolpe)
Def: escape conditioning *
learned behavior that enables escape

eg a rat conditioned to press a lever to terminate a shock; or a time-out is terminated because of expressed remorse

the escape response is learned immediately and persists because it is immediately reenforcing

a type of negative reenforcement - behavior increases in order to get rid of the stimulus
What causes the 'scallop effect'
On a fixed interval schedule since timing of reward can be anticipated response falls off after reward and increases as it comes closer again
Core differences between classical and operant conditioning
Classical - acquisition of involuntary responses

Operant - acquisition of voluntary responses
Def: avoidance conditioning
Cue is presented prior to an aversive stimulus, signaling an individual to avoid it

A type of negative reenforcement
Examples of negative reinforcement
Escape conditioning
Avoidance conditioning
Operant conditioning account of depression
The result of a prolongued extinction schedule; ie the person has little or no access to reenforcement
Def: implosive therapy
Imaginal exposure to a stimulus at maximum intensity

Incorporates psychodynamic themes