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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Proactive inhibtion occurs when:
Memory for stimuli or information is interfered with by a previous task or activity
The behavioral technique of satiation involves:
Having someone engage in a behavior targeted for elimination, until that behavior loses its reinforcing value (similar to "prescribing the symptom" in family therapy).
In conditioning, "scalloped responding" means:
That a behavior increases right at the time when reinforcement is about to be delivered, but drops off when delivery is not forthcoming (is associated with fixed-interval schedules).
Higher order conditioning involves:
A stimulus that had previously been a CS is paired with another neutral stimulus until it also can elicit the conditioned response.
Which behavioral techniques involves a lost opportunity for reinforcement?
Time out
Sensate focus is based on which behavioral principle?
Sensate focus (pairing relaxing feelings with sexual touching with no pressure to perform sexually) is based on counterconditioning - pairing a response targetted for elimination with an incompatible, adaptive response.
The paradigm of insight learning is associated with the work of:
Wolfgang Kohler developed this concept of "sudden cognitive restructuring of the environment"
Primary memory is equivalent to:
Short term memory
The Premack Principle involves:
Using a high probabability behavior to reinforce a low probabability one
Side effects of ECT:
patchy anterograde and temporary retrograde amnesia
Escape conditioning refers to:
A form of negative reinforcement in which an individual is able to escape an aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior.
Proactive inhibition refers to:
When previous learning interferes with more recent learning
Retroactive interference refers to:
When new learning interferes with the recall of prior learning.
Reterograde amnesia refers to:
Failure to remeber events that occured prior to a trauma
When presented with a letter V on a screen and asked later to recall the letter, subjects report which incorrect letter?
B - due to storing acouticlly, subjects report letters that sound the same
Backwards conditioning:
the US is presented before the CS (bad idea)
Functional amnesia is characterized by:
retrograde amnesia, especially for personal information
Research using the "dimantling strategy" has shown the most critical component of systematic desensitization to be:
classical extinction (repeated exposure to the CS without presence of the US)
According to operant conditioning, depression is the result of:
a prolonged extinction schedule (depressed person has little or no access to reinforcement)
Research has shown that threats of retaliation for aggresive behavior:
are more likely to deter aggression when the retaliator has high status or power
Behavioral approaches dealing with Autistic children would employ primarily:
Shaping - (method of sucessive approximation)
In operant conditioning, the evidence indicating that learning has taken place is:
rate of responding
Panic Control Treatment
exposes the patient to the internal (introceptive) sensations that accompany a panic attack (such as inducing dizziness by spining patient on a chair)
When using the method of loci you:
pair images you want to remeber with places you are familiar with
Acc. to Bandura, "functional value" refers to:
anticipated consequences (a behavior has functional value when the person anticipates desirable consequences)
Scallop effect
For fixed-interval schedules, refers to the slow pace following reinforcement and the rapid pace prior to reinforcement
Behavioral technique designed to eliminate undesirable behaviors and promote alternative ones.
1)Restitution (correct consequences)
2)Guided movement
3)Positive practice
Implosive theapy
Client is immediatly exposed through imagination, to a feared stimulus at its maximum intensity
Behavior therapist would view anxiety as:
Classical conditioning in which an aversive stimlus or negative life event served as an unconditioned stimulus
In the classical conditioning paradigm, backward conditioning has been found to be
Ineffective (when the UCS like the bell comes after the CS, such asfood = no effect)
Thorndike's Laws of Learning
Law of Effect: responses that are accompinied by satisfaction = will be repeated
Law of Excercise:response repeated often enough in presence of another stimulus will be more leikely repeated in presence of that stimulus
Law of Readiness:Organism must be READY to perform an act
Types of Classical Conditioning
Simultaneous: CS & UCS are presented together
Delayed:CS precedes and overlaps UCS
Trace:CS precedes and terminates before UCS
Backward: UCS precedes CS
Conditioned response is strongest & most rapidly acquired with which classical conditioning method?
Sensory Preconditioning
pairing 2 Cs's together and then pairing one with a UCS, & then presenting the other CS and elicitng the UCS
After a CS is paired with a UCS, a second CS is introduced. Blocking occurs when the first CS inhibits the second CS
Systematic Desensitization
(also referred to as recripricol inhibition & counterconditioning)
techinique designed to reduce anxiety through pairing of anxiety response with incompatible feelings of relaxation, by imaginally exposing client to stimuli & relaxation
Treatment of choice for Specific Phobia
Systematic Desensitization
(based on Classical conditioning) involves exposing an individual to anxiety-provoking stimuli while preventing an avoidance response
Incubation effect (paradoxical enhancement effect)
paradoxical effect in some case of flooding where the anxiety/fear is actually increased
Graded Exposure
Variation of flooding in which the person is gradually exposed to the feared stimulus
Research findings on flooding
1)In-vivo is more effective than imaginal
2)prolonged exposure is better than brief
3)In-vivo flooding & graded exposure work well (75%) for Agorophobia & OCD
Implosive Therapy
(based on classical conditioning & psychoanalytic therapy) involves imaginal exposure to feared stimulus, in which psychodynamic themes (sex, aggression) underliing the phobia are incorporated
Aversive Counterconditioning
Pairing a noxious stimulus with a behavior targeted for elimination (antabuse for alcoholism)
Covert sensitization
aversive conditioning done through imagination (works well on Paraphilias, also better with some actual aversive stimuli)
Shaping (method of sucsessive approximations)
(based on operant conditioning/reinforcment)involves reinforcing individuals for emitting responses that gradually approach the behavior that is desired (often used with Autistic kids)
Response Cost
(form of negative punishment) involves the removal of a pre-specified reward each time a targetted behavior occurs (traffic ticket) tends to be effective
Differential Reinforcement for Other Behaviors (DRO)
(uses operant conditioning & positive reinforcement) involves extinction of target behavior and reinforcement of all other behaviors
Contigency Contracting
involves establishing a formal written contract that specifies target behaviors and the reinforcements contingent upon them (used for delinquency, academic porblems, addictive behaviors)
How doee operant differ from classical?
1)Behaviors are VOLUNTARY
2)Operants occur as the result of environmental consequences that follow them
Operant strength is measured by:
1)rate of responding during acquisition
2)total number of responses before extinction trials
Response burst
temporary increase of response prior to extinction (increased crying of baby)
Behavioral Contrast
When 2 behaviors which had been reinforced sepeartly & 1 behavior is extinguised, the other behavior INCREASES
Can be a problem in attempting to stop undesirable behavior
Process of switching from a continous schdule to an intermittent schedule
Escape Conditioning
(form of negative reinforcement)continous presentation of an aversive stimulus requiring the subject to take some action in order to escape the situation
Avoidance Conditioning
(combo of clssical and negative reinforcement)process of learning to make a particular response in the presence of a cue to in orer to avoid a noxious stimulus (how Phobias develop)
Discriminitive Stimulus
stimulus that precedes a behavior & increases the probability of that behavior, w/o itself having been a reinforcer (e.g. menu to a heavy person)
S-delta stimulus
a stimulus that serves as a cue that reinforcement is not forthcoming
Latent Learning
Acc. to Tolman, learning that occurs w/o reinforcement and manifests itself when reinforcement is present
Modeling consists of:
4)reinforcement mechanism
Drive Reduction Theory (Hull)
probabibility of a behavior occurring depends on the strength of the learning habit & the motivation or level of drive (the desire to reduce the drive, motivates learning)
Acc. to Miller & Dollard, prior to any hostility there is always______
Yerkes-Dodson Law
1)Higher levels of arusal work better for simple tasks, lower levels better for complex tasks
2)Increased arousal is associated with better learning up to a point at which it decreases
Sensory memory
1)Large capacity
2)Brief retention 1/2 second for visual, 2 sec. for auditory
Short term Memory properties
1)Limmited capacity (7+-2)
2)Brief storage - 30 sec
3)Conscious processing of info
Overlearning is best for
Simple tasks (multiplication table)
Punishment will ________ aggression
Stress Inoculation involves:
2)Behavioral rehearsal
3)applied practice
Response Generalization
occurs when a iscriminative stimulus increases operant behaviors that are similar to the one that was reinforced (baby saying gaga)
Factors that influence the Effectiveness of reinforcement
1)positive is best when the reinforcer is available only AFTER the behavior has been performed
2)Reinfocer should happen right away
3)Begin on continous, maintain with intermittent
4)Verbal clarifiction of relationship of S & R
5)Magnitude of the reinforcer
Factors that influence the Effectiveness of Punishment
1)Extreme & continual
2)Delivered soonest
3)Constantly applied
4)Verbal clarification & warning
Alloy, Abramoson & Metalsky revised the learned-helplessness model and deemphasized the role of:
attributions (feel they are only important when they contribute to feelings of depression)
"Pure" behavioral treatments:
behavioral rehearsal, reinforcement, coaching, modeling, & homework (which are all elements of social skills training)
Protocol analysis:
Having subjects verbalize their thought process as they perform a task (to help understand the cognitive process)
In order to extinguish a classically conditioned response, one should omit the_____:
Unconditioned stimulus
Overlearning is most useful when...
itis spaced out over time & the material is specific & concrete
Best treatment for OCD
In-vivo exposure with response prevention
Identical elements refers to:
The notion that training is best transferred over to situations which are similar to the training environment
Research comparing mnemonic devices to rote rehearsal has found:
them to be superior for short-term but not long term
Interval sampling is used when:
A behavior has no distinct beginning and end (period of time is broken up into smaller parts and it is recorded whether or not the behavior occured)
Barnum effect refers to:
the tendency for people to identify with vague descriptions of themselves (horoscopes)