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55 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference in the macroscopic view of yeast and mold?
Mold has a hairy, mossy look while yeast is white, creamy, and moist and smells like yeast.
What is the microscopic difference between mold and yeast?
Under the microscope yeast is always oval, while mold has various shapes, hyphae,etc.
Why is Coccidiodes immitis considered to be a dimorphic fungus?
Because it can only grow as yeast under certain environmental conditions.
What are the growth differences between fungus and bacteria?
Fungi grow as either yeasts or molds and are eukaryotic unlike bacteria which are prokaryotic.
Define Blastospore
A newly produced cell by yeast reproducing asexually by budding.
Define Pseudohyphae
Successive blastospores remaining attached to the original cell.
Define Septate hyphae
Fungal hyphal filaments that are separated by a crosswall.
What is the difference between vegetative hyphae and aerial hyphae?
Vegetative hyphae penetrates while aerial hyphae grow on the top of the agar's surface.
What is the difference between sporangiospores and conidiospores?
Sporangiospores are produced at the end of aerial hyphae. Conidiospores are formed on hyphae called conidiospores can be one-celled or multi-celled.
how are molds identified in the laboratory?
Pigment, Height, Slide Cultures
Define Bacteriophage:
Viruses that infect bacteria
Define Lytic
Lysis, Explode, burst
Define Plaque
Clear area on the agar represented by lysed E. coli
What is the purpose for making dilutions of the T-4 virus?
To get a countable plate
What equation is used to calculate the titer of phage?
Plaque Count X Dilution Factor X Sample Amount= PFU/mL
Define obligate intracellular parasite
They can grow only inside another living host cell.
Define the Lytic Cycle
Viruses burst open their bacterial host once the appropriate number of viruses has been synthesized, killing the bacteria.
How does a medium used for bacterial growth differ from media used for bacteriophage growth?
Bacteriophages can only survive in molten agar, not in normal media.
What was the purpose of E. coli in the viral plaque experiment (Ex. 14)?
E. coli was the host.
Differentiate between Staphylococcus and Streptococcus by the catalase test.
Staphylococcus will bubble, meaning it has catalase to break down the hydrogen peroxide. Streptococcus will not bubble because it does not have the catalase enzyme.
What is the principle of the catalase test and what reagent is used?
The test is used to determine whether or not catalase is present. Catalase will break down the hydrogen peroxide (reagent) and produce bubbles that are visible to the naked eye.
What is the principle and the reagents used in the coagulase test?
Reagent is rabbit plasma...if coagulase is present there will be clumping.
What are the results for Staphylococcus aureus in the coagulase and it's reaction on Mannitol Salt agar?
Coagulase positive.
Positive On Mannitol Salt Agar.
What are the results for Staphylococcus epidermidis in the coagulase and it's reaction on Mannitol Salt agar?
Coagulase negative.
Negative on mannitol salt agar.
How is Mannitol Salt Agar both a selective and a differential media?
It is selective because it determines what can grow because of the high salt concentration and differential because it determines what ferments mannitol because it will turn hot pink.
What is the pigmentation of Micrococcus luteus?
Yellow.
What are the results of the nitrate test and glucose fermentation for Micrococcus luteus?
Negative for nitrate reduction.
Negative for glucose fermentation.
What are the results of the nitrate test and glucose fermentation for Micrococcus roseus?
Positive for nitrate reduction.
Negative for glucose fermentation.
What is the pigmentation of Micrococcus roseus?
Pink.
Staphylococcus and Micrococcus are what type of bacteria?
Gram Positive Cocci in clusters.
Where is Staphylococcus and Micrococcus found normally on the body?
On the Skin and Mucous membranes.
What is a carrier?
Someone who harbors the pathogen but shows no signs and symptoms.
What is MRSA?
Isolates that have become resistant to penicillin derivatives.
What does nosocomial mean?
Hospital acquired infection.
Name two substances that Staphylococcus aureus produce to cause disease.
Exotoxins and enzymes
When do Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus cause disease?
In compromised tissues.
What are the types of hemolysis and what do they look like?
Alpha: Brownish green
Beta: Bright Yellow
Gamma: Looks like normal bacteria growth
Why do you use the streak stab method for blood agar inoculations?
Because it enhances the appearance.
Microaerophiles will find their area of oxygen easier.
Identify the Alpha Streptococcus and beta Streptococcus given the appropriate biochemical test...
Optochin for Alpha:
sensitive= Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant= Streptococcus mitis.
Beta= Bacitracin
Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes; resistant= group c streptococcus
Differentiate the Enterococcus from other alpha hemolytic streptococcus...
Enterococcus turns black (+) during the bile esculin test while the others are negative. Enterococcus is also resistant to both the optochin and bacitracin tests.
How do the appearances of the colonies of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus differ?
Staphylococcus=clusters
streptococcus= lines and pairs
Which enzyme helps differentiate all staphylococcus from streptococcus?
Catalase
How did Lancefield divide the beta-hemolytic streptococci into groups?
Based on the C polysaccharides extracted from the cell walls.
What is the species name of Lancefield Group A streptococcus?
Streptococcus Pyogenes
What is the species name of Lancefield Group B streptococci?
Streptococcus agalactiae
Where are Enterococcus normally found in the body?
G.I. Tract
Define VRE
Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus- nosocomial acquired strains that have acquired resistance to vancomycin.
Define Viridans Streptococci
Alpha hemolytic streptococci that produce green hemolysis.
Name a disease that Group A Strep causes...
Strep Throat
Name a disease that Group B Strep causes...
Neonatal septicemia
Name a disease that Enterococcus causes....
Urinary Tract Infection
Name a disease that Streptococcus pneumoniae causes...
Community-acquired pneumonia
Name a disease that viridans streptococci causes...
Dental Cavities
Explain how CNA and MacConkey agar aid in the identification of your mixed unknown...
CNA only grows gram (+) bacteria
MacConkey grows gram (-) bacteria
Differentiate bacteria that grow on MacConkey by their ability to ferment lactose...
If the bacteria can ferment lactose it will turn hot pink.