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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why is a streak plate used?
to isolate colonies
the act of cohabitation
symbiosis
the production of pigment
chromogenesis
a mass of identical cells derived form a common descendent
pure culture
Why must we flame between each inoculation?
To not contaminate and to try to obtain a pure culture
microorganisms found in the human body
microflora
What is an opportunistic microorganism?
An organism that takes advantage when the host is comprimised such as when the immune system is weakend. (high stress, pregnacy, improper diet, and/or illness)
name an example of opportunistic microorganism
Candidas Albicans
disease causing
pathogenic
name a few pathogenic organisms that can be isolated form the human throat
Neisseria
Steptococcus
Stapylococcus
Haemophilus
Which pathogen found in the throat would cause acute pharyngitis(and pneumonia)
streptococcus
What kind of agar was used during the throat swabing lab and why?
Blood agar
because we are looking for a hemolytic reaction.
What are the two kind of hemolytic reactions that happen in blood agar?
Alpha
Beta
If you see one of these two reactions you know that you are looking for a human pathogen
An enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
Catalase
Do all bacteria have catalase?
No, it is a biochemical characteristic.
RESULTS:
A positive for catalase
Bubbling
RESULTS:
A negative for catalase
No bubbling
What is used to test for catalase?
Hydrogen peroxide
What does catalse do?


Who has them?
It helps neutralize free radicals in the cell.

We have them and bacterial cells have them
What is a beta hemolytic reaction?
vs. alpha hemolytic
completly destroying the RBC's
vs.
partially destroying the RBC'S --denaturing the hemoglobin.
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What was added to the gas pack?
water
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What was released after the water was added to the gas pack?
carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas
21-Culturing Anaerobes
The was the purpose of the two gases being released from the gas pack?
For the hydrogen gas to be release to react with all the oxygen to get rid of al the remaining oxygen. --It is turned into water. (obligate anaerobes dont like oxygen)It produced a lot of condensation in the jar.
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What is needed to complete the reaction?
palladium pellets
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What do palladium pellets do?
They are a enzyme catalyst that speed up the reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen to turn it into water.
21-Culturing Anaerobes
indicates the presense or lack of oxygen in an anaerobic jar
methylene blue strip
21-Culturing Anaerobes
RESULTS-for methylene blue strip
A. presense of oxygen
B. lack of oxygen
A. blue
B. water
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What are three ways that can determine anaerobic conditions?
1. condensation
2. anaerobic agar
3. methylene blue strip
They are all indicators
21-Culturing Anaerobes
RESULTS:
Anaerobic Agar
Initially what color is it (in the presence of oxygen)?
In the absense of oxygen what color is it?
A. It is green
B. clear
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What other special media was used?
Thio glyco llate
21-Culturing Anaerobes
What was the color of Thioglycllate on the very surface?
Pink
21-Culturing Anaerobes
Why was thioglycollate pink on the surface?
21-Culturing Anaerobes
It has an oxygen indicator--where ever oxygen diffuese into the media it turns pink.
21-Culturing Anaerobes
Why is thioglycollate used with obligate anaerobics?
It is used because it is very viscous. Because it is difficult for oxygen to go to the bottom.
21-Culturing Anaerobes
Name one obligate anaerobe
Clostridium butyricum
21-Culturing Anaerobes
bacteria requiring oxygen as the final electron acceptor
Obligate aerobes
21-Culturing Anaerobes
bacteria unable to tolerate oxygen, oxygen is toxic to these organisms. they grow by fermentation using an organic molecule as the final electron receptor or by anaerobic resperation.
OBLIGATE ANAEROBES
21-Culturing Anaerobes
bacteria able to use electron as the final electron acceptor or by an anaerobic. OR in the absense of oxygen , they can switch ti fermentation or anaerobic respiration
Facultive anaerobes
21-Culturing Anaerobes
unable to grow in oxygen concentrations of ambient air. Love just a tiny bit of oxygen because they have very little SOD and catalase very low concentrations
microaerophiles
Mycology
What was the purpose of the lab? about
Colony formation
To transfer fungus sabourauds dextrose agar plates
Characteristics? Furry,the bottom and the side of the colony were different.
Mycology-
What was the purpose of the tease prep?
What were the three different types?
To prepare a slide
To look at the reproductive structures that fungi produce. (reproductive structures)
1. Rhizopus
2. Penicillium
3. Soraria
Mycology
A sexual
has-sporangium and sporangiospores.
Rhizopus (see the picture/microscope on test)
Mycology
A sexual
has- condiospores
penicillium (hard to find most likly not on test)
Mycology
Sexual Reproduction
has-Ascus and ascus spores (look like oblong sporangium) structures are a result of mating
Sordaria (she has prepared slide probably on test)
Mycology
What is the back up for the tease prep? Why?
Ridel prep-purpose is identical of tease prep.

Why? Because everything remains intact.
Mycology
What is needed to put together a ridel prep?
Why is water used?
straw
slide
cover slip
water
petri plate
--Water is used because for moisture.
Mycology
T or F Fungi love nice dark moist places
True
Mycology
What is used to differentiate between yeast?
What did we use this test for?
chrome agar
We used this test to differentiate between three types of candidas
Mycology
Know the differences between candidas?
Candidas albicans, C. tropicalis, C. Kruzi
Candidas albicans-green
c. tropicalis-purple
c. kruzi- beige with pink tint
Microbrew
What was added to make the beer?
water
flavoring hops
malt
priming sugar (mid way)
Microbrew
Why was flavoring hops added?
flavor and aroma
Microbrew
What yeast was added?
S. cerevisiae
Microbrew
Why was malt added?
It was added as a food and energy source for the yeast.
Microbrew
What was the original source of the malt?
Barley--sometimes wheat is used.
Microbrew
Why was priming sugar added?
For carbonation to create the bubbles ( the foam on the top of the beer)
**midway**
Microbrew
what does specific gravity measure?
The alchol content. (the index reading was 1.01)
**midway**
Microbrew
What was the whole purpose of the lab?
Fementation
Microbrew
Is fementation an aerobic or anaerobic?
anaerobic
Microbrew
What is the final electron acceptor in this kind of metabolism? (The fementation process)
An organic molecule
Microbrew
What electron acceptor is it using in this casse?
acetal formaldehyde
Microbrew
what are two by products of fementation?
ethenal and carbon dioxide
Microbrew
What is the final end product of fementation?
ethenal
Microbrew
How many ATPs do you get from fermentation? from one molecule?
2
Microbrew
Trenda what is wort?
hmm
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
(will set out plates on lab-know the 3 plates)
Starch agar
milk agar
Tributyrin agar
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
which of the three agar do you need iodine to complete the read out?
Starch agar
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ADDING IODINE TO STARCH AGAR?
IONDINE IS A STARCH INDICATOR. iT TELLS YOU IF IT IS PRESENT OR IF IT HAS BEEN BROKEN DOWN.
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
Which of the three are you testing for a protase?
the milk agar
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
WHICH OF THE THREE WILL RESULT IN MONOSACCARIDES FROM THE HYDROLYSIS REACTION THAT TAKES PLACE?
starch agar.
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
Define hydrolysis reaction
The breaking of bonds by adding water.
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
What is the specific name of the protein being hydrolysized in milk agar?
Casine
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
What is another name for the enzymes that we tested for?
extra cellular or exocellular
Extra Cellular Enzymes-26
why are they called extra cellular?
Because they are being secreted by the cell. The bacteria are breaking down their food outside thier body. Then they absorb the smaller subunits.
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What were the three different types of sugars?
Sucrose, glucose, and lactose
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What was tested for during this lab?
The ability to ferment sugar.
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
These tests are commonly used to identify and classifying bacteria True or False
true
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What was the name of the little upside tube that each of the larger test tubes had?
Durham tube
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What was the purpose of a Durham tube?
To collect gas ( a bubble collects)produced form the breakdown of sugar
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
Why is the media red?
What was the name of it?
it has a indicator


Phenol Red-
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
The ability to fement a specific sugar or group of sugars is often unique to each type of bacteria. true or false
true
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
what does the indicator indicate?
A CHANGE IN PH. IT IS AN ACID BASED INDICATOR.
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What is the Ph when it is Red?
RED- pH 7
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What is the pH when it is orange?
lower t
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What is the pH yellow?
less than 6.8
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
If given a tube (yellow)What is the chemical reaction taking place?
Fermentation (it would be an effective answer for the other tubes?)
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
Name two by products as a result of the reaction taking place?
carbon dioxide and acid
carbohydrate fermentaion-27
What is happening if the tube is magenta?
Is this reaction aerobic or anaerobic?
NOSUGARFERMENTATION- instead protein is being broken down.

The reaction is aerobic...protein is not broken down by fermentaion only sugar. (only exception)
Sulfer Reducing and Trytophan metabolism-28&29
Sulfer Reducing and Trytophan metabolism-28&29
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
what was innoculate?
SIMS agar
and Trptone broth
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
What has (tRENDA WHAT IS THE ANSWER TO THIS)??? as a carbon and energy sourc?
SIM
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
What does SIMS test for?
The ability to use sulfer as the final elctron acceptor.
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
Is it anaerobic?
Yes
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
When sulfur is used as the final electron aceptor oxidized or reduced?
Reduced- Hydrogen sulfide
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
when hydrogen sulfide is produced --what is its inital state? Why dont we smell it?
it a gas --then it tuns solid

It doesnt smell because the media has iron in it. Iron i guess is like smell be gone for sulfer.
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
What is being tested for in Tryptone broth?
What animal has trytophan?
It will check to see if the bacteria cam metabolize tryptpahn.
The animal is a turkey
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
What in the tryptopahn media allow us to determine if the tryptophan was broken down?
INDOLE
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
Indole reacts with__________ to produce a _________ band on the surface.
Colvacs reagent


color change-
a dark pink band
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
What else was produced?
indole, pyruvate, and ammonia
Sulfur and Trytophan-28&29
Which one is not a waste product?
Pyruvate
Antibiotic Sensitivity 30
Why were their no zones of inhibition around the C. cervisiae and A. niger?
Because they are prokaryotic cells.
Antibiotics do not work on fungi-mold,yeast
Antibiotic Sensitivity 30
What do antibiotics target?
Eukaryotic structures-it targets peptidoglycan
Antibiotic Sensitivity 30 Penicillin works better on the gram POSITIVE S. aureus than and on gram negative. WHY?
because it targets the peptidoglycan.
Antibiotic Sensitivity 30 Why is penicilin not helpful on a gram negative?
1. they have a lps layer
and periplasmic space.
2. even if it does destroy it does not kill it.---on a gram positive there is nothing but a bunch of layers???maybe
ELISA 31
What were testing for with the ELISA?
antigens and antibodies binding
ELISA 31
What does washing do?
To rinse any antigen or any unbound antibodies
ELISA 31
Give an example of what this test is useful for
home pregnacy test
hepatistis
HIV
water
syphilis