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78 Cards in this Set

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accusation
form of neurotic aggression that involves blaming other people for for ones shortcomings and seeking revenge against those people
aggression
as a safeguarding strategy, aggression can take three forms:depreciation, accusation, and self-accusation.
avoiding type person
person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle of avoiding the attempt to solve lifes problems, thereby escaping possible defeat. such a person lacks adequate social interest
birth order
one of the topics adler studied in order to understand pers. he believed that diff. birth orders created diff. situations to which children must adjust and that this adjustment may have an influence on personality development
compensation
making up for a weakness, such as organ inferiority, by emphasizing fxns that substitute for the weakness
creative self
free element of the personality that allows the person to choose btw. .alternative fictional goals and lifestyles. It is the differential exercise of this creative power that is mainly responsible for individual differences
depreciation
neurotic safeguarding strategy where one's accomplishments are over valued and the accomps of others are undervalued. It can take form of idealization, whereby standards used to judge people are so high that no real person could live up with them and is thus depreciated. another form is solicitude whereby neurotics act as if other people could not get along with them
distancing
safeguarding strat. used by neurotics that involves creating barriers btw. themselves and their problems in life. according to adler distancing can take forms of moving backward or the use of childlike behavior in order to gain attention and control; standing still or the avoidance of failure by not attempting to do anything hesitating or becoming involved in diversions until it is too late to confront a problem: constructing obstacles or the creation of minor obstacles so that they can be overcome, thereby increasing the neurotic feeling of worth: experiencing anxiety caused by neurotic's inability to solve life's problems; the greater the ineptitude, the greater the need for distancing; and using the exclusion tendency or the neurotics tendency to confine their lives to the few areas in which they can dominate
dream analysis
adler believed the primary purpose of dreams was to create emotions that could be used by dreamers to support their mistaken lifestyles. dreams then were analyzed to learn about lifestyles of the dreamers
excuses
safeguarding strategy whereby neurotics use their symptoms as excuses for their shortcomings
feelings of inferiority
feelings that one has of being inferior whether or not these feelings are justified by real circumstances. such feelings according to adler could lead to positive accomplishments or to an inferior complex
fictional finalism
aka guiding self ideal and guiding fiction. fictional future goal to which a person aspires. this goal is the end to which the person is aspiring and his or her lifestyles is the means to that end
first born child
this child is the focus of attention until the birth of the 2nd dethrones him. the loss felt by this often creates bitterness that causes problems later in life. adler considered this to be the most troublesome of the birth positions
first memories
persons earliest recollections which provide the basis for a persons worldview fictional final goal and lifestyle. adler believed that as ones personality changes so do the first memories
fundamental fact of life
adler replaced his earlier contention that people seek power to overcoming feelings of inferiority with the contention that they aspire to become superior or perfect. adler referred to the latter contention that as the fundamental fact of life. adler's final position was that healthy persons aspire toward social rather than individual perfection.
getting-learning type person
person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle that expects everything to be given to him or her by others. such a person lacks adequate social interest
individual psychology
adlers term to describe his theory. the term individual was used to stress his belief that each person is an integrated whole striving to attain future goals and attempting to find meaning while working harmoniously with others
inferiority complex
psychological condition that exists when a person is overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority to the point at which nothing can be accomplished
lifestyle
the primary means by which one attempts to attain his or her self crossed fictional goals in life
masculine ptroest
attempting to become more powerful by being more masculine and thereby less feminine. according to adlers earliest theorizing both men and women attempt to gain power by becoming more like cultural ideal of the man
mistaken lifestyle
any lifestyle that is aimed at socially useful goals. in other any lifestyle that minimizes social interest
neglecting
condition that causes teh child to feel worthless and angry and to be distrustful of everyone
only child
like first born who was never dethroned. only children according to adler are often sweet affectionate and charming in order to appeal to others. adler didn't consider this position as dangerous as the first one
organ inferiority
exists when some organ of the body doesn't develop normally. this can stimulate compensation or overcomp. which is healthy or can result in an inferiority complex which is unhealthy
overcompensation
process by which through considerable effort a previous weakness is converted into a strength. ex. frail child works hard to become an athlete
physical inferiority
actual physical weakness
ruling dominant type person
person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle that dominates and rules people. such a person lacks adequate social interest.
safeguaring strategies
mechs. neurotics use to preserve what life self esteem and illusions of superiority a mistaken lifestyle can provide
2nd born child
child is very ambitious b/c he or she is constantly attempting to catch up and surpass the older sibling. of all the birth orders, adler believed that the 2nd born was the best
self-accusation
form of neurotic aggression that involves wallowing in self torture guilt the ultimate purpose of which is to hurt other people
social interest
innate potential to live in harmony and friendship with others and to spire to the development of a perfect society
socially useful type person
person exhibiting a lifestyle containing a healthy amount of social interest. such a lifestyle is not mistaken
spoiling or pampering
conditions that cause a child to believe it is the responsibility of others to satisfy his or her needs
striving for superiority
adler called the fundamental fact of life. according to adler's final theoretical position it is not the search for the power necessary to overcome feelings of inferiority that motivates humans; rather, it is the constant search for perfection or superiority. however, adler stressed the perfection of society rather than individual perfection
superiority complex
psychological condition that exists when a person concentrates too much on his or her own need to succeed while ignoring the needs of others. such a person tends to be vain, domineering, and arrogant
youngest child
according to adler the 2nd worst birth position after first born. this one is often spoiled and therefore loses courage to succeed by his or her own efforts.
anatomy is destiny
contention of some personality theorists, freud for example. that one's gender determines, to a large extent, one's personality characteristics
arbitrary rightness
exemplified when issues arise that have no clear solution one way or the other, and a person arbitrarily choses one solution, thereby ending debate
basic anxiety
psychological state that exists when basic hostility is repressed. it is the general feeling that everything and everyone in the world is potentially dangerous and that one is helpless relative to those dangers
basic evil
anything that parents do that undermines a childs security
basic hostility
feeling generated in a child if needs for saftety and satisfaction are not consistently and lovingly attended to by the parents
blind spots
denying or ignoring certain aspects of experience b/c they are not in accordance with one's idealized self-image
compartmentalization
dividing one's life into various components with different rules applying to the different components
compliant type person
person who uses moving toward people as the major means of reducing basic anxiety
cynicism
strategy in which a person believes in nothing and is therefore immune to the disappointment that comes from being committed to something that is shown to be false
detached type person
person who uses moving away from people as the major means of reducing basic anxiety
elusiveness
opposite to arbitrary rightness. the elusive person is higly indecisive without commitments to anythinhg this person is seldom, if ever, wrong
excessive self- control
guarding against anxiety by denying oneself emotional involvement in anything
externalization
belief that the causes of major experiences are external to oneself
hostile type person
person who uses moving against people as the major means of reducing basic anxiety
idealized self
fictitious view of oneself with its lists of shoulds that displaces the real self in teh neurotic personality
moving against people
adjustment ot basic anxiety that uses the tendency to exploit other people and to tgain power over them. horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the hostile type
moving away from people
adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the need to be self-sufficient. horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the detached type
moving toward people
adjustment that uses the need to be wanted, loved, and protected by other peopole. horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the compliant type
neurotic trends
ten strategies for minimizing basic anxiety
rationalization
giving good but erroneous reasons to excuse conduct that would otherwise be anxiety-provoking. horney used this tern in much the same way that freud did
real self
self that is healthy and conducive to positive growth. all are born with helthy self but can be distorted by the basic evil. the basic evil causes a person to view his or her self negatively, and the attempt to escape from it. although, the neurotic views his real self negatively, it remains a source of potential health and positive growth
safety
childs need for security and freedom from fear : must be satisfied according to norney before normal psych. development could occur
satisfaction
meeting of physiological needs as those for water, food, and sleep required for a child's biological survival
self analysis
process of self help that horney believed people could apply to themselves to solve life's problems and to minimize conflict
self-realization
innate tendency to strive for truthfullness, productivity and harmonious relationships with fellow humans
tyranny of the shoulds
when ones idealized self is subed for the real self, one's behavior is governed by several unrealistic "shoulds"
this person's theory included one searching for the meaning of life, future, and striving for superiority
ADLER!!!
believed in the uniqueness of individual and the importance of harmony and cooperation
adler!
organ inferiority
ADLER
Personality types: degree of social interest and lifestyles
ruling dominant
getting learning
avoiding
socially useful: only healthy one, the rest are healthy
origination of faulty (mistaken lifestyles)
adler; physical inferiority, pampered(most dangerous for society, "neglect
safeguarding
adler- intended to make others feel bad
safeguarding tendencies
excusies: yes, but...if only
aggression
withdrawal or distancing
types of aggression
adler;
1. depreciation- idealization and solcitude-> overvaluing of self and undervaluing someone else
2. accusation
3. self accusation
tools of individual psychology
family-> birth order
early recollections ->find out about lifestyles
dreams->indicate mistaken lifestyle
critique of adler
-high on generating research, organizing data, and guiding action
-moderate on parsimony
-low on falsifiability and internal consistency
adlers concept of humanity
very high on optimism and teleology
high on free choice, social influences, and uniqueness
average on unconscious influences
feelings of inferiority
adler; subjective inferiority: real or imagined
develops in infancy- dependent->seek power, grow, and overcome feelings
responses directed towards goals
masculine protest
cultural condition
power=masculinity, weakness=femininity
all are weak, desiring strength
over evaluation of masculinity
motivational
striving for superiority
adler; innate fundamental fact of life: not simply masculinity is sought b/c perfection is as well: can be beneficial or harmful
-neg effect (superiority complex)
* own needs at society's expense->vain, arrogant
lifestyles of adler
1. healthy or mistaken
2. affected by world view(perception 4-5 years old)
3. lifestyle is determined by degree of social interest
4. worldview determined by if parents are nurturing or neglecting
what determines healthy v. unhealthy lifestyle
social interest